The Mismeasure of Science: Stephen Jay Gould versus Samuel George Morton on Skulls and Bias
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{"title"=>"The Mismeasure of science: Stephen jay gould versus Samuel George Morton on Skulls and Bias", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jason E.", "last_name"=>"Lewis", "scopus_author_id"=>"55483984700"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"DeGusta", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603774955"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc R.", "last_name"=>"Meyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"56669145400"}, {"first_name"=>"Janet M.", "last_name"=>"Monge", "scopus_author_id"=>"14050754300"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan E.", "last_name"=>"Mann", "scopus_author_id"=>"55704794500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ralph L.", "last_name"=>"Holloway", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103241626"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1544-9173", "arxiv"=>"11.4", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959792995", "pmid"=>"21666803", "issn"=>"15449173", "pui"=>"362049895", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071", "sgr"=>"79959792995"}, "id"=>"e2350e2d-e31e-3ccc-8f52-145bb4fbe0ce", "abstract"=>"Stephen Jay Gould, the prominent evolutionary biologist and science historian, argued that \"unconscious manipulation of data may be a scientific norm\" because \"scientists are human beings rooted in cultural contexts, not automatons directed toward external truth\" [1], a view now popular in social studies of science [2–4]. In support of his argument Gould presented the case of Samuel George Morton, a 19th-century physician and physical anthropologist famous for his measurements of human skulls. Morton was considered the objectivist of his era, but Gould reanalyzed Morton's data and in his prizewinning book The Mismeasure of Man [5] argued that Morton skewed his data to fit his preconceptions about human variation. Morton is now viewed as a canonical example of scientific misconduct. But did Morton really fudge his data? Are studies of human variation inevitably biased, as per Gould, or are objective accounts attainable, as Morton attempted? We investigated these questions by remeasuring Morton's skulls and reexamining both Morton's and Gould's analyses. Our results resolve this historical controversy, demonstrating that Morton did not manipulate data to support his preconceptions, contra Gould. In fact, the Morton case provides an example of how the scientific method can shield results from cultural biases.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mismeasure-science-stephen-jay-gould-versus-samuel-george-morton-skulls-bias", "reader_count"=>298, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>29, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>64, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>67, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>12, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>22}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>29, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>64, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>67, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>23, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>12, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>22}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>144, "Philosophy"=>15, "Arts and Humanities"=>12, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>4, "Chemistry"=>6, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10, "Engineering"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>3, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>34, "Social Sciences"=>27}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>27}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>34}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>12}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>144}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>15}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>25, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Thailand"=>1, "Switzerland"=>2, "Portugal"=>3, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>4, "Netherlands"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Brazil"=>8, "Denmark"=>1, "Mexico"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>3, "Chile"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767366"], "description"=>"<p>Morton's portrait is from <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071#pbio.1001071-Nott1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a> and Gould's photo was taken by Kathy Chapman and is used under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["samuel", "george", "morton", "stephen", "jay", "gould"], "article_id"=>437728, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jason E. Lewis", "David DeGusta", "Marc R. Meyer", "Janet M. Monge", "Alan E. Mann", "Ralph L. Holloway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Portraits_of_Samuel_George_Morton_left_and_Stephen_Jay_Gould_right_/437728", "title"=>"Portraits of Samuel George Morton (left) and Stephen Jay Gould (right).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-07 02:08:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385761", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385867", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/385985", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386003", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/386019"], "description"=>"The Mismeasure of Science: Stephen Jay Gould versus Samuel George Morton on Skulls and Bias", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mismeasure", "stephen", "jay", "gould", "samuel", "george", "morton", "skulls"], "article_id"=>136146, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jason E. Lewis", "David DeGusta", "Marc R. Meyer", "Janet M. Monge", "Alan E. Mann", "Ralph L. Holloway"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>35, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Mismeasure_of_Science_Stephen_Jay_Gould_versus_Samuel_George_Morton_on_Skulls_and_Bias/136146", "title"=>"The Mismeasure of Science: Stephen Jay Gould versus Samuel George Morton on Skulls and Bias", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-06-07 01:42:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767601"], "description"=>"<p>Our capacity measurements (“Current”) have been adjusted to account for the average difference (about 4%) produced by the difference in our method versus Morton's shot method (see <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071#pbio.1001071.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Text S2</a>). “Difference” is Morton's measurement relative to ours. Specimens with a percentage difference of greater than 5.5% (more than 2.5 standard deviations from the mean percentage difference) are clear outliers and we consider them to have been mismeasured by Morton. “Measure Error” is our measurement error based on three repeated measurements of each cranium's capacity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mismeasured", "morton"], "article_id"=>437970, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jason E. Lewis", "David DeGusta", "Marc R. Meyer", "Janet M. Monge", "Alan E. Mann", "Ralph L. Holloway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crania_mismeasured_by_Morton_with_shot_10_using_our_measurements_as_the_gold_standard_/437970", "title"=>"Crania mismeasured by Morton with shot [10], using our measurements as the “gold standard.”", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-07 02:12:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/767508"], "description"=>"<p>The 78 lithographs in <i>Crania Americana</i> set new standards for accuracy in anatomical illustration, as they were drawn carefully to scale and rechecked for accuracy multiple times, chiefly by John Collins <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071#pbio.1001071-Cook1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071#pbio.1001071-Buikstra1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>. Indeed, the quality of the illustrations in this volume exceeds that of many modern publications. The remaining specimens in the Morton Collection are currently curated at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["illustrated", "samuel", "george"], "article_id"=>437878, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jason E. Lewis", "David DeGusta", "Marc R. Meyer", "Janet M. Monge", "Alan E. Mann", "Ralph L. Holloway"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001071.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>181, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skull_illustrated_in_Samuel_George_Morton_s_Crania_Americana_8_/437878", "title"=>"Skull illustrated in Samuel George Morton's <i>Crania Americana</i>[<b>8</b>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-07 02:11:18"}

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Relative Metric

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