Why Are Autism Spectrum Conditions More Prevalent in Males?
Publication Date
June 14, 2011
Journal
PLOS Biology
Authors
Simon Baron Cohen, Michael V. Lombardo, Bonnie Auyeung, Emma Ashwin, et al
Volume
9
Issue
6
Pages
e1001081
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001081
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001081
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21695109
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3114757
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21695109
Web of Science
000292191200008
Scopus
79959791701
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/autism-spectrum-conditions-more-prevalent-males
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{"title"=>"Why are Autism Spectrum conditions more prevalent in Males?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Simon", "last_name"=>"Baron-Cohen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006016927"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael V.", "last_name"=>"Lombardo", "scopus_author_id"=>"23980659600"}, {"first_name"=>"Bonnie", "last_name"=>"Auyeung", "scopus_author_id"=>"15134853800"}, {"first_name"=>"Emma", "last_name"=>"Ashwin", "scopus_author_id"=>"23967615300"}, {"first_name"=>"Bhismadev", "last_name"=>"Chakrabarti", "scopus_author_id"=>"35253357900"}, {"first_name"=>"Rebecca", "last_name"=>"Knickmeyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"9037565100"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1001081", "pmid"=>"21695109", "pui"=>"362049894", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959791701", "issn"=>"15449173", "isbn"=>"1545-7885 (Electronic)\\r1544-9173 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"79959791701"}, "id"=>"7d4320d6-71d5-3128-8323-f377f038dd1f", "abstract"=>"Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are much more common in males, a bias that may offer clues to the etiology of this condition. Although the cause of this bias remains a mystery, we argue that it occurs because ASC is an extreme manifestation of the male brain. The extreme male brain (EMB) theory, first proposed in 1997, is an extension of the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory of typical sex differences that proposes that females on average have a stronger drive to empathize while males on average have a stronger drive to systemize. In this first major update since 2005, we describe some of the evidence relating to the EMB theory of ASC and consider how typical sex differences in brain structure may be relevant to ASC. One possible biological mechanism to account for the male bias is the effect of fetal testosterone (fT). We also consider alternative biological theories, the X and Y chromosome theories, and the reduced autosomal penetrance theory. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/384855"], "description"=>"<div><p>Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are much more common in males, a bias that may offer clues to the etiology of this condition. Although the cause of this bias remains a mystery, we argue that it occurs because ASC is an extreme manifestation of the male brain. The extreme male brain (EMB) theory, first proposed in 1997, is an extension of the Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory of typical sex differences that proposes that females on average have a stronger drive to empathize while males on average have a stronger drive to systemize. In this first major update since 2005, we describe some of the evidence relating to the EMB theory of ASC and consider how typical sex differences in brain structure may be relevant to ASC. One possible biological mechanism to account for the male bias is the effect of fetal testosterone (fT). We also consider alternative biological theories, the X and Y chromosome theories, and the reduced autosomal penetrance theory. None of these theories has yet been fully confirmed or refuted, though the weight of evidence in favor of the fT theory is growing from converging sources (longitudinal amniocentesis studies from pregnancy to age 10 years old, current hormone studies, and genetic association studies of SNPs in the sex steroid pathways). Ultimately, as these theories are not mutually exclusive and ASC is multi-factorial, they may help explain the male prevalence of ASC.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["are", "autism", "conditions", "prevalent"], "article_id"=>135980, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Simon Baron-Cohen", "Michael V. Lombardo", "Bonnie Auyeung", "Emma Ashwin", "Bhismadev Chakrabarti", "Rebecca Knickmeyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001081"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Why_Are_Autism_Spectrum_Conditions_More_Prevalent_in_Males_/135980", "title"=>"Why Are Autism Spectrum Conditions More Prevalent in Males?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-14 01:39:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/765069"], "description"=>"<p>Rates of ASC/autistic traits in different medical conditions, as predicted by the X and Y chromosome theories, and the fT theory.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chromosome", "ft"], "article_id"=>435440, "categories"=>["Sociology"], "users"=>["Simon Baron-Cohen", "Michael V. Lombardo", "Bonnie Auyeung", "Emma Ashwin", "Bhismadev Chakrabarti", "Rebecca Knickmeyer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001081.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rates_of_ASC_autistic_traits_in_different_medical_conditions_as_predicted_by_the_X_and_Y_chromosome_theories_and_the_fT_theory_/435440", "title"=>"Rates of ASC/autistic traits in different medical conditions, as predicted by the X and Y chromosome theories, and the fT theory.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-06-14 01:30:40"}
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Relative Metric

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