Relatedness, Conflict, and the Evolution of Eusociality
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{"title"=>"Relatedness, Conflict, and the Evolution of Eusociality", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Xiaoyun", "last_name"=>"Liao", "scopus_author_id"=>"56581045800"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Rong", "scopus_author_id"=>"56581473700"}, {"first_name"=>"David C.", "last_name"=>"Queller", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005982492"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Biology", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84926331580", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84926331580", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098", "pii"=>"S0022-5193(05)80683-6", "isbn"=>"1476-4687 (Electronic)\\n0028-0836 (Linking)", "pui"=>"603498591", "issn"=>"15457885", "pmid"=>"20740005"}, "id"=>"4ff84d54-49b8-36d3-a1cc-1077443a46ae", "abstract"=>"The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a new model of the evolution of eusociality with novel conclusions that appeared to overturn some major results from inclusive fitness. Here we report an expanded examination of this kind of model for the evolution of eusociality and show that all three of its apparently novel conclusions are essentially false. Contrary to their claims, genetic relatedness is important and causal, workers are agents that can evolve to be in conflict with the queen, and eusociality is not so difficult to evolve. The misleading conclusions all resulted not from incorrect math but from overgeneralizing from narrow assumptions or parameter values. For example, all of their models implicitly assumed high relatedness, but modifying the model to allow lower relatedness shows that relatedness is essential and causal in the evolution of eusociality. Their modeling strategy, properly applied, actually confirms major insights of inclusive fitness studies of kin selection. This broad agreement of different models shows that social evolution theory, rather than being in turmoil, is supported by multiple theoretical approaches. It also suggests that extensive prior work using inclusive fitness, from microbial interactions to human evolution, should be considered robust unless shown otherwise.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/relatedness-conflict-evolution-eusociality", "reader_count"=>218, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>33, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>69, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>31, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>16}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Researcher"=>33, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1982696", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1982697", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1982698", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1982699", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1982700", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1982701"], "description"=>"<div><p>The evolution of sterile worker castes in eusocial insects was a major problem in evolutionary theory until Hamilton developed a method called inclusive fitness. He used it to show that sterile castes could evolve via kin selection, in which a gene for altruistic sterility is favored when the altruism sufficiently benefits relatives carrying the gene. Inclusive fitness theory is well supported empirically and has been applied to many other areas, but a recent paper argued that the general method of inclusive fitness was wrong and advocated an alternative population genetic method. The claim of these authors was bolstered by a new model of the evolution of eusociality with novel conclusions that appeared to overturn some major results from inclusive fitness. Here we report an expanded examination of this kind of model for the evolution of eusociality and show that all three of its apparently novel conclusions are essentially false. Contrary to their claims, genetic relatedness is important and causal, workers are agents that can evolve to be in conflict with the queen, and eusociality is not so difficult to evolve. The misleading conclusions all resulted not from incorrect math but from overgeneralizing from narrow assumptions or parameter values. For example, all of their models implicitly assumed high relatedness, but modifying the model to allow lower relatedness shows that relatedness is essential and causal in the evolution of eusociality. Their modeling strategy, properly applied, actually confirms major insights of inclusive fitness studies of kin selection. This broad agreement of different models shows that social evolution theory, rather than being in turmoil, is supported by multiple theoretical approaches. It also suggests that extensive prior work using inclusive fitness, from microbial interactions to human evolution, should be considered robust unless shown otherwise.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eusociality", "relatedness", "method", "novel conclusions", "kin selection", "model", "evolution", "Inclusive fitness theory"], "article_id"=>1351160, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyun Liao", "Stephen Rong", "David C. Queller"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relatedness_Conflict_and_the_Evolution_of_Eusociality_/1351160", "title"=>"Relatedness, Conflict, and the Evolution of Eusociality", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-03-23 05:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1982694"], "description"=>"<p>The worker-assisted birthrate <i>b</i> and the probability of staying <i>q</i> are allowed to vary, while other parameters are as in Figure 4 of Nowak et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098#pbio.1002098.ref013\" target=\"_blank\">13</a>] (<i>m</i> = 3, <i>b</i><sub><i>0</i></sub> = 0.5, <i>d</i><sub><i>0</i></sub> = 0.1, <i>d</i> = 0.01, α = 0.1, η = 0.01). Filled circles show values of relatedness <i>r</i> and worker-assisted queen birthrate <i>b</i> that select for eusociality (for at least one value of <i>q</i>) if the decision is made by offspring (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098#pbio.1002098.e003\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 2</a>). Reducing relatedness makes eusociality harder to evolve (requires higher <i>b</i>). When the decision is made by genes acting in mothers (<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098#pbio.1002098.e004\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 3</a>), eusociality evolves under much broader conditions (open and filled circles), and lowering relatedness make eusociality easier to evolve. The open circles represent the zone of potential conflict, in which mothers but not offspring favor eusociality. The data used to make this figure can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098#pbio.1002098.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Dataset</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eusociality", "relatedness", "method", "novel conclusions", "kin selection", "model", "evolution", "Inclusive fitness theory"], "article_id"=>1351158, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyun Liao", "Stephen Rong", "David C. Queller"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relatedness_r_and_the_evolution_of_eusociality_/1351158", "title"=>"Relatedness (<i>r</i>) and the evolution of eusociality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-23 05:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1982695"], "description"=>"<p>The threshold model is that assumed in Figure 4 of Nowak et al. [<a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098#pbio.1002098.ref013\" target=\"_blank\">13</a>] (<i>m</i> = 3, <i>b</i><sub><i>0</i></sub> = 0.5, <i>d</i><sub><i>0</i></sub> = 0.1, <i>d</i> = 0.01, α = 0.1, η = 0.01), with no benefits of working below colony size 3 (two workers). The step model is identical except one worker benefits the queen half as much as two workers do. The data used to make this figure can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098#pbio.1002098.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Dataset</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eusociality", "relatedness", "method", "novel conclusions", "kin selection", "model", "evolution", "Inclusive fitness theory"], "article_id"=>1351159, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Xiaoyun Liao", "Stephen Rong", "David C. Queller"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002098.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Eusociality_evolves_more_readily_under_a_step_model_both_open_and_closed_circles_than_under_the_threshold_model_closed_circles_only_/1351159", "title"=>"Eusociality evolves more readily under a step model (both open and closed circles) than under the threshold model (closed circles only).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-03-23 05:25:11"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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