Chapter 7: Pharmacogenomics
Publication Date
December 27, 2012
Journal
PLOS Computational Biology
Authors
Konrad J. Karczewski, Roxana Daneshjou & Russ B. Altman
Volume
8
Issue
12
Pages
e1002817
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pcbi.1002817
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300409
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3531317
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23300409
Web of Science
000312901500023
Scopus
84872050511
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/chapter-7-pharmacogenomics
Events
Loading … Spinner

CiteULike | Further Information

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Chapter 7: Pharmacogenomics", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Konrad J.", "last_name"=>"Karczewski", "scopus_author_id"=>"36110203000"}, {"first_name"=>"Roxana", "last_name"=>"Daneshjou", "scopus_author_id"=>"41261080700"}, {"first_name"=>"Russ B.", "last_name"=>"Altman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202798518"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84872050511", "pui"=>"368067277", "isbn"=>"1553-7358", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817", "issn"=>"1553734X", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872050511", "pmid"=>"23300409"}, "id"=>"2a751cc3-2bbb-36e6-9d47-f4e0e06ee08b", "abstract"=>"There is great variation in drug-response phenotypes, and a \"one size fits all\" paradigm for drug delivery is flawed. Pharmacogenomics is the study of how human genetic information impacts drug response, and it aims to improve efficacy and reduced side effects. In this article, we provide an overview of pharmacogenetics, including pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), gene and pathway interactions, and off-target effects. We describe methods for discovering genetic factors in drug response, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), expression analysis, and other methods such as chemoinformatics and natural language processing (NLP). We cover the practical applications of pharmacogenomics both in the pharmaceutical industry and in a clinical setting. In drug discovery, pharmacogenomics can be used to aid lead identification, anticipate adverse events, and assist in drug repurposing efforts. Moreover, pharmacogenomic discoveries show promise as important elements of physician decision support. Finally, we consider the ethical, regulatory, and reimbursement challenges that remain for the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/chapter-7-pharmacogenomics", "reader_count"=>209, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>44, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>51, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>44, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>51, "Student > Postgraduate"=>18, "Student > Master"=>22, "Other"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>17}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>97, "Philosophy"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>10, "Computer Science"=>14, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>17, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>42, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>42}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>12}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>10}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>97}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>14}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>17}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>11, "Egypt"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Ghana"=>1, "Spain"=>4, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Korea (South)"=>1, "Morocco"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "Brazil"=>5, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>3, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84872050511"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84872050511?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84872050511&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84872050511&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84872050511", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84872050511", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84872050511", "dc:title"=>"Chapter 7: Pharmacogenomics", "dc:creator"=>"Karczewski K.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS Computational Biology", "prism:issn"=>"1553734X", "prism:eIssn"=>"15537358", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"12", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2012-12-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"December 2012", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817", "citedby-count"=>"21", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Stanford University", "affiliation-city"=>"Palo Alto", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Stanford University", "affiliation-city"=>"Palo Alto", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"23300409", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e1002817", "source-id"=>"4000151810"}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fploscompbiol%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pcbi.1002817", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2012", "pdf_views"=>"188", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"601"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"412", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"1322"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"168", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"938"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"133", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"595"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"108", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"601"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"95", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"405"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"71", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"270"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"60", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"357"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"177"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"174"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"54", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"300"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"200"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"173"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"246"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1614"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"764"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"683"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"287"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"266"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"234"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"250"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"321"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"371"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"264"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"183"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"180"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"190"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"89"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"24", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"107"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"99"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"114"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"106"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"123"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"170"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"149"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"224"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"127"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"241"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"171"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"146"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"159"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"146"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"225"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"159"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"211"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"189"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"353"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"145"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"156"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/516285"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Structural similarity between methotrexate and dihydrofolate. (B) Methotrexate (green) and dihydrofolate (blue) fit into the same binding pocket of DHFR. (C) The conformation of dihydrofolate bound to the reference version of the receptor. (D–E) Two possible conformations of dihydrofolate bound to the F31R/Q35E variants of the receptor. These variants have decreased affinity to methotrexate, relative to dihydrofolate. Reprinted with permission from <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817#pcbi.1002817-Volpato1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["binds", "folate-binding"], "article_id"=>186782, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Konrad J. Karczewski", "Roxana Daneshjou", "Russ B. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Methotrexate_binds_to_the_folate_binding_region_of_DHFR_/186782", "title"=>"Methotrexate binds to the folate-binding region of DHFR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-27 01:53:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/516810"], "description"=>"<p>Docking methods suggest binding site similarity between COMT (green) and InhA (blue). The overlap between the predicted locations of their cofactors (purple and orange, respectively) and ligands (red and yellow, respectively) suggest potential similarity in their functions. Thus, the same drug that has been used to inhibit COMT (entacapone) was predicted to inhibit the M. tuberculosis protein InhA for potential treatment of tuberculosis. Reprinted from <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817#pcbi.1002817-Kinnings1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "Computational biology", "pharmacology"], "article_id"=>187305, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Konrad J. Karczewski", "Roxana Daneshjou", "Russ B. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Drug_repurposing_/187305", "title"=>"Drug repurposing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-27 02:01:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/516981"], "description"=>"<p>Examples of pharmacogenomics used in this chapter. Additional examples can be found at PharmGKB.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pharmacogenomics", "examples"], "article_id"=>187477, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Konrad J. Karczewski", "Roxana Daneshjou", "Russ B. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_pharmacogenomics_used_in_this_chapter_Additional_examples_can_be_found_at_PharmGKB_/187477", "title"=>"Examples of pharmacogenomics used in this chapter. Additional examples can be found at PharmGKB.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-27 02:04:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/280327"], "description"=>"<div><p>There is great variation in drug-response phenotypes, and a “one size fits all” paradigm for drug delivery is flawed. Pharmacogenomics is the study of how human genetic information impacts drug response, and it aims to improve efficacy and reduced side effects. In this article, we provide an overview of pharmacogenetics, including pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), gene and pathway interactions, and off-target effects. We describe methods for discovering genetic factors in drug response, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS), expression analysis, and other methods such as chemoinformatics and natural language processing (NLP). We cover the practical applications of pharmacogenomics both in the pharmaceutical industry and in a clinical setting. In drug discovery, pharmacogenomics can be used to aid lead identification, anticipate adverse events, and assist in drug repurposing efforts. Moreover, pharmacogenomic discoveries show promise as important elements of physician decision support. Finally, we consider the ethical, regulatory, and reimbursement challenges that remain for the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pharmacogenomics"], "article_id"=>115280, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Konrad J. Karczewski", "Roxana Daneshjou", "Russ B. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Chapter_7_Pharmacogenomics_/115280", "title"=>"Chapter 7: Pharmacogenomics", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-27 01:28:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/516555"], "description"=>"<p>New associations discovered by cheminformatics methods. The Similarity Ensemble Approach (SEA) uses ligand similarity methods to discover potential new associations between drugs and targets. Reprinted with permission from <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817#pcbi.1002817-Keiser2\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "Computational biology", "pharmacology"], "article_id"=>187054, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Konrad J. Karczewski", "Roxana Daneshjou", "Russ B. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cheminformatics_methods_/187054", "title"=>"Cheminformatics methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-27 01:57:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/516454"], "description"=>"<p>(A) An association study with cases and controls. Millions of genetic loci are probed to ascertain “association,” or separation between genotypes in cases and controls. (B) Each SNP is tested independently using a 2×2 contingency table and a χ<sup>2</sup> test or Fisher's exact test. (C) Each SNP is assessed for “genome-wide” significance, after Bonferroni correction. Reprinted from <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817#pcbi.1002817-Takeuchi1\" target=\"_blank\">[64]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "Computational biology", "pharmacology"], "article_id"=>186954, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Konrad J. Karczewski", "Roxana Daneshjou", "Russ B. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_methods_/186954", "title"=>"Association methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-27 01:55:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/516895"], "description"=>"<p>A proposed clinical workflow including pharmacogenomic information. A physician considers the patient's current presentation and past history when coming up with a working diagnosis and based on his or her clinical judgment, decides what drugs the patient may need. For example, if the physician wanted to add clopidogrel to the patient's regimen, the physician would input it into the electronic medical record (EMR). The EMR would interrogate the genome and present a message such as “clopidogrel sensitivity: POOR METABOLIZER, REDUCED ANTI-PLATELET EFFECT - gene: CYP2C19 - gene result *2/*2.” Based on this recommendation, the physician may adjust the dose accordingly or choose another drug. In this case, the physician will likely increase the dose of clopidogrel in order to achieve therapeutic effect. Reprinted with permission from <a href=\"http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817#pcbi.1002817-Pulley1\" target=\"_blank\">[65]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pharmacogenomics"], "article_id"=>187397, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Konrad J. Karczewski", "Roxana Daneshjou", "Russ B. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Applying_pharmacogenomics_in_the_clinic_/187397", "title"=>"Applying pharmacogenomics in the clinic.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-27 02:03:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/516671"], "description"=>"<p>Pharmacogenomics can be used at multiple steps along the drug discovery pipeline to minimize costs, as well as increase throughput and safety. First, association and expression methods (as well as pathway analysis) can be used to identify potential gene targets for a given disease. Cheminformatics can then be used to narrow the number of targets to be tested biochemically, as well as identifying potential polypharmacological factors that could contribute to adverse events. After initial trials (including animal models and Phase I trials), pharmacogenomics can identify variants that may potentially affect dosing and efficacy. This information can then be used in designing a larger Phase III clinical trial, excluding “non-responding” and targeting the drug towards those more likely to respond favorably.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics and genomics", "Computational biology", "pharmacology"], "article_id"=>187169, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Genetics", "Pharmacology"], "users"=>["Konrad J. Karczewski", "Roxana Daneshjou", "Russ B. Altman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002817.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Drug_discovery_/187169", "title"=>"Drug discovery.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-27 01:59:29"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"110", "full-text"=>"125", "pdf"=>"50", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"31", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"125", "full-text"=>"152", "pdf"=>"49", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"26", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"100", "full-text"=>"110", "pdf"=>"32", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"29", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"73", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"75", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"69", "pdf"=>"29", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"33", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"63", "pdf"=>"36", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"29", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"35", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"32", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"25", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"65", "full-text"=>"71", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"90", "full-text"=>"110", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"22", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"74", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"84", "full-text"=>"87", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"139", "full-text"=>"156", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"80", "full-text"=>"101", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"113", "full-text"=>"128", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"130", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"91", "full-text"=>"117", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"143", "full-text"=>"168", "pdf"=>"40", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"116", "full-text"=>"130", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[333, 576, 707, 814, 908, 1004, 1104, 1197, 1280, 1370, 1449, 1531, 1603, 1673, 1742, 1817, 1886, 1954, 2025, 2098, 2171, 2234, 2304, 2365, 2431]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[335, 575, 699, 804, 900, 994, 1119, 1215, 1317, 1408, 1509, 1583, 1664, 1732, 1802, 1873, 1945, 2020, 2104, 2190, 2259, 2325, 2400, 2463, 2548]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmaceutics", "average_usage"=>[305, 566, 705, 814, 911, 1028, 1121, 1228, 1325, 1435, 1532, 1608, 1690, 1769, 1843, 1921, 1997, 2089, 2155, 2225, 2285, 2361, 2433, 2496, 2560]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[325, 565, 687, 787, 880, 971, 1065, 1156, 1244, 1339, 1424, 1502, 1582, 1654, 1724, 1794, 1855, 1925, 1997, 2058, 2132, 2207, 2285, 2347, 2412]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts