A Six Months Exercise Intervention Influences the Genome-wide DNA Methylation Pattern in Human Adipose Tissue
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{"title"=>"A Six Months Exercise Intervention Influences the Genome-wide DNA Methylation Pattern in Human Adipose Tissue", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tina", "last_name"=>"R??nn", "scopus_author_id"=>"22981252600"}, {"first_name"=>"Petr", "last_name"=>"Volkov", "scopus_author_id"=>"55279452000"}, {"first_name"=>"Cajsa", "last_name"=>"Daveg??rdh", "scopus_author_id"=>"56052850800"}, {"first_name"=>"Tasnim", "last_name"=>"Dayeh", "scopus_author_id"=>"22134085400"}, {"first_name"=>"Elin", "last_name"=>"Hall", "scopus_author_id"=>"54585262300"}, {"first_name"=>"Anders H.", "last_name"=>"Olsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"36721919400"}, {"first_name"=>"Emma", "last_name"=>"Nilsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35500292300"}, {"first_name"=>"??sa", "last_name"=>"Tornberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"55375939700"}, {"first_name"=>"Marloes", "last_name"=>"Dekker Nitert", "scopus_author_id"=>"22035883000"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl Fredrik", "last_name"=>"Eriksson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202997699"}, {"first_name"=>"Helena A.", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"37003725800"}, {"first_name"=>"Leif", "last_name"=>"Groop", "scopus_author_id"=>"21634758500"}, {"first_name"=>"Charlotte", "last_name"=>"Ling", "scopus_author_id"=>"8300751400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369235340", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879678934", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572", "sgr"=>"84879678934", "isbn"=>"1553-7404 (Electronic)\\r1553-7390 (Linking)", "issn"=>"15537390", "pmid"=>"23825961"}, "id"=>"cea22493-cc62-33bb-9aad-f3fc32d1ee21", "abstract"=>"Epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in gene regulation and the development of different diseases. The epigenome differs between cell types and has until now only been characterized for a few human tissues. Environmental factors potentially alter the epigenome. Here we describe the genome-wide pattern of DNA methylation in human adipose tissue from 23 healthy men, with a previous low level of physical activity, before and after a six months exercise intervention. We also investigate the differences in adipose tissue DNA methylation between 31 individuals with or without a family history of type 2 diabetes. DNA methylation was analyzed using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, an array containing 485,577 probes covering 99% RefSeq genes. Global DNA methylation changed and 17,975 individual CpG sites in 7,663 unique genes showed altered levels of DNA methylation after the exercise intervention (q<0.05). Differential mRNA expression was present in 1/3 of gene regions with altered DNA methylation, including RALBP1, HDAC4 and NCOR2 (q<0.05). Using a luciferase assay, we could show that increased DNA methylation in vitro of the RALBP1 promoter suppressed the transcriptional activity (p = 0.03). Moreover, 18 obesity and 21 type 2 diabetes candidate genes had CpG sites with differences in adipose tissue DNA methylation in response to exercise (q<0.05), including TCF7L2 (6 CpG sites) and KCNQ1 (10 CpG sites). A simultaneous change in mRNA expression was seen for 6 of those genes. To understand if genes that exhibit differential DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human adipose tissue in vivo affect adipocyte metabolism, we silenced Hdac4 and Ncor2 respectively in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which resulted in increased lipogenesis both in the basal and insulin stimulated state. In conclusion, exercise induces genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in human adipose tissue, potentially affecting adipocyte metabolism.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/six-months-exercise-intervention-influences-genomewide-dna-methylation-pattern-human-adipose-tissue-9", "reader_count"=>138, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>15, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>15, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104498"], "description"=>"<p>A CpG site in the promoter region of <i>RALBP1</i> showed A) increased DNA methylation in response to exercise as well as B) a decrease in mRNA expression. C) <i>In vitro</i> DNA methylation of the <i>RALBP1</i> promoter decreased gene expression, as measured by luciferase activity. The result represents the mean of three independent experiments, and the values in each experiment are the mean of five replicates (background control subtracted). Data is presented as mean ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "methylation", "ralbp1"], "article_id"=>734144, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DNA_methylation_of_RALBP1_is_associated_with_a_decrease_in_gene_expression_/734144", "title"=>"DNA methylation of RALBP1 is associated with a decrease in gene expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104496"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis flowchart.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine"], "article_id"=>734142, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_flowchart_/734142", "title"=>"Analysis flowchart.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104508", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104509", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104512", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104514", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104516", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104522", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104525"], "description"=>"<div><p>Epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in gene regulation and the development of different diseases. The epigenome differs between cell types and has until now only been characterized for a few human tissues. Environmental factors potentially alter the epigenome. Here we describe the genome-wide pattern of DNA methylation in human adipose tissue from 23 healthy men, with a previous low level of physical activity, before and after a six months exercise intervention. We also investigate the differences in adipose tissue DNA methylation between 31 individuals with or without a family history of type 2 diabetes. DNA methylation was analyzed using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, an array containing 485,577 probes covering 99% RefSeq genes. Global DNA methylation changed and 17,975 individual CpG sites in 7,663 unique genes showed altered levels of DNA methylation after the exercise intervention (<i>q</i><0.05). Differential mRNA expression was present in 1/3 of gene regions with altered DNA methylation, including <i>RALBP1</i>, <i>HDAC4</i> and <i>NCOR2</i> (<i>q</i><0.05). Using a luciferase assay, we could show that increased DNA methylation <i>in vitro</i> of the <i>RALBP1</i> promoter suppressed the transcriptional activity (<i>p</i> = 0.03). Moreover, 18 obesity and 21 type 2 diabetes candidate genes had CpG sites with differences in adipose tissue DNA methylation in response to exercise (<i>q</i><0.05), including <i>TCF7L2</i> (6 CpG sites) and <i>KCNQ1</i> (10 CpG sites). A simultaneous change in mRNA expression was seen for 6 of those genes. To understand if genes that exhibit differential DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human adipose tissue <i>in vivo</i> affect adipocyte metabolism, we silenced <i>Hdac4</i> and <i>Ncor2</i> respectively in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which resulted in increased lipogenesis both in the basal and insulin stimulated state. In conclusion, exercise induces genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in human adipose tissue, potentially affecting adipocyte metabolism.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "months", "influences", "genome-wide", "dna", "methylation", "adipose"], "article_id"=>734151, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Six_Months_Exercise_Intervention_Influences_the_Genome_wide_DNA_Methylation_Pattern_in_Human_Adipose_Tissue_/734151", "title"=>"A Six Months Exercise Intervention Influences the Genome-wide DNA Methylation Pattern in Human Adipose Tissue", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104506"], "description"=>"<p>Data are presented as mean ± SD, based on paired non-parametric test and two-tailed <i>p</i>-values. Cross-reactive probes: Maximum number of bases (≥47) matched to cross-reactive target as reported by Chen et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572#pgen.1003572-Chen1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "adipose", "dna", "methylation", "months", "cpg", "sites", "biggest"], "article_id"=>734150, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_adipose_tissue_DNA_methylation_in_response_to_a_6_months_exercise_intervention_Significant_CpG_sites_q_8_/734150", "title"=>"Changes in adipose tissue DNA methylation in response to a 6 months exercise intervention. Significant CpG sites (<i>q</i><0.05) with the biggest change in DNA methylation (>8%).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104503"], "description"=>"<p>Data are presented as mean ± SD, based on paired non-parametric test (DNA methylation) or t-test (mRNA expression) and two-tailed <i>p</i>-values. Cross-reactive probes: Maximum number of bases (≥47) matched to cross-reactive target as reported by Chen et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572#pgen.1003572-Chen1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "cpg", "sites", "genes", "t2d", "dna", "methylation", "adipose"], "article_id"=>734147, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_CpG_sites_located_within_near_candidate_genes_for_T2D_3_with_a_significant_change_in_DNA_methylation_in_adipose_tissue_in_response_to_exercise_/734147", "title"=>"Individual CpG sites located within/near candidate genes for T2D [3], with a significant change in DNA methylation in adipose tissue in response to exercise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104502"], "description"=>"<p>Data are presented as mean ± SD, based on paired non-parametric test (DNA methylation) or t-test (mRNA expression) and two-tailed <i>p</i>-values. Cross-reactive probes: Maximum number of bases (≥47) matched to cross-reactive target as reported by Chen et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572#pgen.1003572-Chen1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "cpg", "sites", "genes", "obesity", "dna", "methylation", "adipose"], "article_id"=>734146, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_CpG_sites_located_within_near_candidate_genes_for_obesity_3_with_a_significant_change_in_DNA_methylation_in_adipose_tissue_in_response_to_exercise_/734146", "title"=>"Individual CpG sites located within/near candidate genes for obesity [3], with a significant change in DNA methylation in adipose tissue in response to exercise.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104494"], "description"=>"<p>All CpG sites analyzed on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip are mapped to gene regions based on functional genome distribution (A) and to CpG island regions based on CpG content and neighbourhood context (B). In the lower panels, global DNA methylation in human adipose tissue is shown for each gene region (C) and for CpG island regions (D). Global DNA methylation is calculated as average DNA methylation based on all CpG sites in each region on the chip, and presented separately for Infinium I and Infinium II assays, respectively. Data is presented as mean ± SD. TSS, proximal promoter, defined as 200 bp (basepairs) or 1500 bp upstream of the transcription start site; UTR, untranslated region; CpG island, 200 bp (or more) stretch of DNA with a C+G content of 50% and an observed CpG/expected CpG in excess of 0.6; Shelf, regions flanking island shores, i.e., covering 2000–4000 bp distant from the CpG island; Shore: the flanking region of CpG islands, 0–2000 bp. *Significant difference between average DNA methylation before versus after exercise, <i>q</i><0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "cpg", "sites", "dna", "methylation", "adipose"], "article_id"=>734141, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_analyzed_CpG_sites_and_global_DNA_methylation_in_human_adipose_tissue_/734141", "title"=>"Location of analyzed CpG sites and global DNA methylation in human adipose tissue.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104505"], "description"=>"<p>Data are presented as mean ± SD, based on paired non-parametric test and two-tailed <i>p</i>-values. Cross-reactive probes: Maximum number of bases (≥47) matched to cross-reactive target as reported by Chen et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572#pgen.1003572-Chen1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "adipose", "dna", "methylation", "months", "cpg", "sites"], "article_id"=>734149, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_adipose_tissue_DNA_methylation_in_response_to_a_6_months_exercise_intervention_Most_significant_CpG_sites_q_/734149", "title"=>"Changes in adipose tissue DNA methylation in response to a 6 months exercise intervention. Most significant CpG sites (<i>q</i><0.005) with a difference in DNA methylation ≥5%.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104504"], "description"=>"<p>Data are expressed as mean ± SD, based on paired t-tests and two-tailed <i>p</i>-values. BP, blood pressure; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, high density lipoprotein.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "dna", "methylation"], "article_id"=>734148, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_characteristics_of_study_participants_n_23_with_DNA_methylation_data_both_before_baseline_and_after_the_exercise_intervention_/734148", "title"=>"Clinical characteristics of study participants (<i>n</i> = 23) with DNA methylation data both before (baseline) and after the exercise intervention.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104500"], "description"=>"<p>CpG sites in the promoter region of A) <i>HDAC4</i> and B) <i>NCOR2</i> showed increased DNA methylation in response to exercise as well as decreased mRNA expression (C–D). Knock-downs were verified either by E) Western blot analysis (for Hdac4) or F) by qRT-PCR (for <i>Ncor2</i>). Lipogenesis increased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes where G) <i>Hdac4</i> (<i>n</i> = 5) or H) <i>Ncor2</i> (<i>n</i> = 5) had been silenced. Data is presented as mean ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "hdac4", "ncor2", "3t3-l1", "adipocytes"], "article_id"=>734145, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Silencing_of_Hdac4_and_Ncor2_in_3T3_L1_adipocytes_results_in_increased_lipogenesis_/734145", "title"=>"Silencing of Hdac4 and Ncor2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes results in increased lipogenesis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1104497"], "description"=>"<p>The absolute change in DNA methylation of individual CpG sites with a significant difference after exercise compared with baseline (<i>q</i><0.05) ranges from 0.2–10.9% (A and B). A) Number of sites with increased methylation in adipose tissue in response to exercise (<i>n</i> = 16,470). B) Number of sites with decreased DNA methylation in adipose tissue in response to exercise (<i>n</i> = 1,505). Panels C and D show the distribution of CpG sites with a significant change (<i>q</i><0.05) and an absolute difference ≥5% in DNA methylation in adipose tissue before versus after exercise, in comparison to all analyzed sites on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. C) Distribution of significant CpG sites vs. all analyzed sites in relation to nearest gene regions. D) Distribution of significant CpG sites vs. all analyzed sites in relation to CpG island regions. *The overall distribution of significant CpG sites compared with all analyzed sites on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was analyzed using a chi<sup>2</sup> test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genetics", "epigenetics", "DNA modification", "gene expression", "Genome-wide association studies", "Endocrinology", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Diabetes mellitus type 2", "Sports and exercise medicine", "methylation", "cpg"], "article_id"=>734143, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tina Rönn", "Petr Volkov", "Cajsa Davegårdh", "Tasnim Dayeh", "Elin Hall", "Anders H. Olsson", "Emma Nilsson", "Åsa Tornberg", "Marloes Dekker Nitert", "Karl-Fredrik Eriksson", "Helena A. Jones", "Leif Groop", "Charlotte Ling"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003572.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DNA_methylation_of_individual_CpG_sites_/734143", "title"=>"DNA methylation of individual CpG sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-27 04:17:58"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"88", "full-text"=>"141", "pdf"=>"35", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"31", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"103", "full-text"=>"127", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

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