Analysis of the Relationships between DNA Double-Strand Breaks, Synaptonemal Complex and Crossovers Using the Atfas1-4 Mutant
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{"title"=>"Analysis of the Relationships between DNA Double-Strand Breaks, Synaptonemal Complex and Crossovers Using the Atfas1-4 Mutant", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Javier", "last_name"=>"Varas", "scopus_author_id"=>"56167944900"}, {"first_name"=>"Eugenio", "last_name"=>"Sánchez-Morán", "scopus_author_id"=>"8292505600"}, {"first_name"=>"Gregory P.", "last_name"=>"Copenhaver", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004315338"}, {"first_name"=>"Juan L.", "last_name"=>"Santos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402389237"}, {"first_name"=>"Mónica", "last_name"=>"Pradillo", "scopus_author_id"=>"16302024000"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS Genetics", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537404", "pmid"=>"26147458", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301", "pui"=>"605567914", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84938795934", "sgr"=>"84938795934"}, "id"=>"39ff0b27-5248-3581-9f1e-d62dd63fb2d2", "abstract"=>"Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) is a histone chaperone that assembles acetylated histones H3/H4 onto newly synthesized DNA, allowing the de novo assembly of nucleosomes during replication. CAF-1 is an evolutionary conserved heterotrimeric protein complex. In Arabidopsis, the three CAF-1 subunits are encoded by FAS1, FAS2 and MSI1. Atfas1-4 mutants have reduced fertility due to a decrease in the number of cells that enter meiosis. Interestingly, the number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), measured by scoring the presence of γH2AX, AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 foci, is higher than in wild-type (WT) plants, and meiotic recombination genes such AtCOM1/SAE2, AtBRCA1, AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 are overexpressed. An increase in DSBs in this mutant does not have a significant effect in the mean chiasma frequency at metaphase I, nor a different number of AtMLH1 nor AtMUS81 foci per cell compared to WT at pachytene. Nevertheless, this mutant does show a higher gene conversion (GC) frequency. To examine how an increase in DSBs influences meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex (SC) formation, we analyzed double mutants defective for AtFAS1 and different homologous recombination (HR) proteins. Most showed significant increases in both the mean number of synapsis initiation points (SIPs) and the total length of AtZYP1 stretches in comparison with the corresponding single mutants. These experiments also provide new insight into the relationships between the recombinases in Arabidopsis, suggesting a prominent role for AtDMC1 versus AtRAD51 in establishing interhomolog interactions. In Arabidopsis an increase in the number of DSBs does not translate to an increase in the number of crossovers (COs) but instead in a higher GC frequency. We discuss different mechanisms to explain these results including the possible existence of CO homeostasis in plants.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/analysis-relationships-between-dna-doublestrand-breaks-synaptonemal-complex-crossovers-using-atfas14", "reader_count"=>43, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>36}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162763"], "description"=>"<p>Meiotic spreads of PMCs stained with DAPI. (A-D) <i>Atspo11-1-5</i>. (F-I) <i>Atfas1-4 Atspo11-1-5</i>. (K-L) <i>Atdmc1-2</i>. (P-S) <i>Atfas1-4 Atdmc1-2</i>. (E, J, O, T) FISH metaphases I using 5S (red) and 45S (green) rDNA probes for chromosome identification in these four backgrounds. Bivalents are observed in the two double mutants (arrows). Bars = 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473868, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atfas1_4_Atspo11_1_5_and_Atfas1_4_Atdmc1_2_display_CO_on_some_occasions_/1473868", "title"=>"<i>Atfas1-4 Atspo11-1-5</i> and <i>Atfas1-4 Atdmc1-2</i> display CO on some occasions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162760"], "description"=>"<p>(A, B) FISH using 5S (red) and 45S (green) rDNA probes for chromosome identification and chiasma scoring. (A) WT metaphase I. (B) <i>Atfas1-4</i> metaphase I. Four ring bivalents (with at least one chiasma in both arms) and one rod bivalent (chromosome 3) are observed. (C, D) Two different examples for the GC test loci using NFTL. (C) Tetrad without GC (2:2). (D) Tetrad with GC (3:1). Bars = 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473865, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CO_and_NCO_measurements_Chiasma_and_GC_scoring_by_FISH_and_NFTLs_/1473865", "title"=>"CO and NCO measurements: Chiasma and GC scoring by FISH and NFTLs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162785", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162786", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162787", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162788", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162789", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162790", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162791", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162792", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162793", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162794", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162795", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162796"], "description"=>"<div><p>Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) is a histone chaperone that assembles acetylated histones H3/H4 onto newly synthesized DNA, allowing the <i>de novo</i> assembly of nucleosomes during replication. CAF-1 is an evolutionary conserved heterotrimeric protein complex. In Arabidopsis, the three CAF-1 subunits are encoded by <i>FAS1</i>, <i>FAS2</i> and <i>MSI1</i>. <i>Atfas1-4</i> mutants have reduced fertility due to a decrease in the number of cells that enter meiosis. Interestingly, the number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), measured by scoring the presence of γH2AX, AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 foci, is higher than in wild-type (WT) plants, and meiotic recombination genes such <i>AtCOM1/SAE2</i>, <i>AtBRCA1</i>, <i>AtRAD51</i> and <i>AtDMC1</i> are overexpressed. An increase in DSBs in this mutant does not have a significant effect in the mean chiasma frequency at metaphase I, nor a different number of AtMLH1 nor AtMUS81 foci per cell compared to WT at pachytene. Nevertheless, this mutant does show a higher gene conversion (GC) frequency. To examine how an increase in DSBs influences meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex (SC) formation, we analyzed double mutants defective for AtFAS1 and different homologous recombination (HR) proteins. Most showed significant increases in both the mean number of synapsis initiation points (SIPs) and the total length of AtZYP1 stretches in comparison with the corresponding single mutants. These experiments also provide new insight into the relationships between the recombinases in Arabidopsis, suggesting a prominent role for AtDMC1 <i>versus</i> AtRAD51 in establishing interhomolog interactions. In Arabidopsis an increase in the number of DSBs does not translate to an increase in the number of crossovers (COs) but instead in a higher GC frequency. We discuss different mechanisms to explain these results including the possible existence of CO homeostasis in plants.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473882, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>20, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Analysis_of_the_Relationships_between_DNA_Double_Strand_Breaks_Synaptonemal_Complex_and_Crossovers_Using_the_Atfas1_4_Mutant/1473882", "title"=>"Analysis of the Relationships between DNA Double-Strand Breaks, Synaptonemal Complex and Crossovers Using the <i>Atfas1-4</i> Mutant", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162759"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Expression analysis of genes encoding meiotic proteins in WT and <i>Atfas1-4</i> bud samples. Values are the average of assays carried out in triplicate using five different cDNA preparations. The red line is the reference for the fold change respect to the WT after normalization to 18S rRNA. The means corresponding to changes in gene expression and their standard errors are indicated. (B-Q) Dual immunolocalization of AtASY1 and AtZYP1 with HR proteins in WT and <i>Atfas1-4</i> prophase I nuclei. (B, C) AtASY1 (green) and γH2AX (red) on WT and <i>Atfas1-4</i> at leptotene. (E, G) AtASY1 (green) and AtRAD51 (red) on WT and (F, H) on <i>Atfas1-4</i> at G<sub>2</sub> or leptotene, respectively. (J, K) AtASY1 (green) and AtDMC1 (red) on WT and <i>Atfas1-4</i> at leptotene. (M, N) AtASY1 (green) and AtMSH4 (red) on WT and <i>Atfas1-4</i> at late zygotene. (P, Q) AtZYP1 (green) and AtMLH1 (red) on WT and <i>Atfas1-4</i> at pachytene. (S, T) AtZYP1 (green) and AtMUS81 (red) on WT and <i>Atfas1-4</i> at pachytene. Bars = 5 µm. (D, I, L, O, R, U) Total foci per nucleus in WT (red) and <i>Atfas1-4</i> (blue) PMCs are indicated. Each dot is the count from a single nucleus. P values are from two-sided Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests (***P < 0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473864, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_expression_and_protein_quantification_for_several_genes_involved_in_HR_in_Atfas1_4_/1473864", "title"=>"Gene expression and protein quantification for several genes involved in HR in <i>Atfas1-4</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162780"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Short arm</p><p><sup>b</sup> Long arm</p><p><sup>c</sup> Number of cells analyzed</p><p>Mean chiasma frequencies per cell, per bivalent, and per bivalent arm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473877, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_chiasma_frequencies_per_cell_per_bivalent_and_per_bivalent_arm_/1473877", "title"=>"Mean chiasma frequencies per cell, per bivalent, and per bivalent arm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162779"], "description"=>"<p>The model shows the different meiotic fates of DSBs (AtSPO11-dependent and independent) in WT, <i>Atfas1-4</i>, <i>Atspo11-1-5</i>; and in the double mutant <i>Atfas1-4 Atspo11-1-5</i>. (CEN: centromere; HR: Homologous Recombination; SDSA: Synthesis Dependent Strand Annealing).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473876, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meiotic_DNA_DSB_outcomes_in_Arabidopsis_/1473876", "title"=>"Meiotic DNA DSB outcomes in Arabidopsis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162768"], "description"=>"<p>(A-F) FISH of metaphase I spreads of WT, <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-3</i> and <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-2</i> PMCs using telomeric (red) and centromeric (green) probes. (A) WT metaphase I. (B, B’) Magnification of one bivalent from (A). The external localization of the telomeres (red dots) shows a chiasmatic association (star) between two bioriented homologous chromosomes (centromeres are represented as green circles). Representative images of metaphase I cells from (C) <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-3</i> and (E) <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-2</i>. (D, D’, F, F’) Bivalent magnification and diagrammatic chiasma interpretation. (G, H) CO confirmation (arrow) in <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-2</i> detected by immunolocalization of AtMLH1 (red) and AtZYP1 (green) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Bars = 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473873, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atrad51_mutants_display_truly_COs_/1473873", "title"=>"<i>Atrad51</i> mutants display truly COs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162766"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Dual immunolocalization of AtASY1 (green) and γH2AX (red) in <i>Atfas1-4 Atspo11-1-5</i>. Bar = 5 µm. (B) Quantification of γH2AX foci in the different backgrounds. Each dot is the count from a single nucleus. P values are from two-sided Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests (***P < 0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473871, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DSB_formation_in_Atfas1_4_Atspo11_1_5_and_in_the_double_mutant_Atfas1_4_Atspo11_1_5_/1473871", "title"=>"DSB formation in <i>Atfas1-4</i>, <i>Atspo11-1-5</i>, and in the double mutant <i>Atfas1-4 Atspo11-1-5</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162767"], "description"=>"<p>Homologous chromosomes do not pair, and severe chromatin fragmentation is observed. (E-H) <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-3</i>. Certain regions appear to be paired (arrow) at post-leptotene and some associated chromosomes are bioriented at metaphase I (arrow). (I-L) <i>Atrad51-2</i> KD mutant plants display some short SC stretches (arrow) and chromosome associations at metaphase I (arrow). (M-P) The double mutant <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-2</i> also shows short SC stretches (arrows) at post-leptotene and bioriented associated chromosomes at metaphase I (arrow). Bars = 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473872, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atfas1_4_Atrad51_genetic_analysis_A_D_Atrad51_3_KO_mutant_plants_/1473872", "title"=>"<i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51</i> genetic analysis. (A-D) <i>Atrad51-3</i> KO mutant plants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162782"], "description"=>"<p>Mean numbers of SIPs per cell in the mutants analyzed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473879, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_numbers_of_SIPs_per_cell_in_the_mutants_analyzed_/1473879", "title"=>"Mean numbers of SIPs per cell in the mutants analyzed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162783"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of SC lengths among different mutants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473880, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_SC_lengths_among_different_mutants_/1473880", "title"=>"Comparison of SC lengths among different mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162755"], "description"=>"<p>(A-H) Chromosome spread preparations from WT and (I-P) <i>Atfas1-4</i> PMCs. (A, I) Leptotene. (B, J) Pachytene. (C, K) Diplotene. (D, L) Metaphase I. Five ring bivalents in WT and four ring bivalents in <i>Atfas1-4</i>. (E, M) Anaphase I. (F, N) Prophase II. (G, O) Metaphase II. (H, P) Anaphase II. Bars = 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473861, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Atfas1_4_does_not_show_cytological_meiotic_alterations_/1473861", "title"=>"<i>Atfas1-4</i> does not show cytological meiotic alterations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162781"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup> Adjusted frequencies after doubling the number of 3:1 tetrads to account for the elimination of 1:3 tetrads from the analysis. See [<a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301#pgen.1005301.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>] for more details.</p><p><sup>b</sup> Number of meioses required to observed one GC.</p><p><sup>c</sup> Data taken from [<a href=\"http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301#pgen.1005301.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>].</p><p>GC frequencies in <i>Atfas1-4</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473878, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GC_frequencies_in_Atfas1_4_/1473878", "title"=>"GC frequencies in <i>Atfas1-4</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2162769"], "description"=>"<p>(A-J) Dual immunolocalization of AtASY1 (green) and AtZYP1 (red) on (A) WT, (B) <i>Atfas1-4</i>, (C) <i>Atspo11-1-5</i>, (D) <i>Atfas1-4 Atspo11-1-5</i>, (E) <i>Atdmc1-2</i>, (F) <i>Atfas1-4 Atdmc1-2</i>, (G) <i>Atrad51-3</i>, (H) <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-3</i>, (I) <i>Atrad51-2</i> and on (J) <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-2</i>. Dual immunolocalization of AtASY1 (green) and AtDMC1 (red) on (K) <i>Atrad51-3</i>, (L) <i>Atrad51-2</i>, (M) <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-3</i>, and on (N) <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-2</i>. Bars = 5 µm. (O) Dispersion diagram for the total foci per nucleus in <i>Atrad51-3</i> (blue), <i>Atrad51-2</i> (red), <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-3</i> (green), and <i>Atfas1-4 Atrad51-2</i> (purple) PMCs are indicated. Each dot is the count from a single nucleus. P values are from two-sided Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests (**P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sip", "meiotic recombination genes", "wt", "AtZYP 1 stretches", "synapsis initiation points", "hr", "AtDMC 1", "DSBs influences meiotic recombination", "AtDMC 1 foci", "γ H 2AX AtRAD 51", "AtMUS 81 foci", "dna", "frequency", "sc", "mutant", "msi", "co", "caf", "fas", "Arabidopsi", "gc"], "article_id"=>1473874, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Javier Varas", "Eugenio Sánchez-Morán", "Gregory P. Copenhaver", "Juan L. Santos", "Mónica Pradillo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005301.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AtRAD51_and_AtDMC1_could_play_different_roles_in_the_synaptic_process_/1473874", "title"=>"AtRAD51 and AtDMC1 could play different roles in the synaptic process.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-06 02:54:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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