The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?
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{"title"=>"The chilling effect: how do researchers react to controversy?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joanna", "last_name"=>"Kempner", "scopus_author_id"=>"8582089200"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-56749157659", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.0050222", "sgr"=>"56749157659", "isbn"=>"1549-1676 (Electronic)", "pmid"=>"19018657", "issn"=>"15491277", "pui"=>"352744033"}, "id"=>"ac459117-c0fe-3d22-8dea-0839c1fb99ea", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND Can political controversy have a \"chilling effect\" on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. METHODS AND FINDINGS Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were \"a waste of taxpayer money.\" The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. CONCLUSIONS These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/chilling-effect-researchers-react-controversy", "reader_count"=>54, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Philosophy"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>15, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>15}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/915366"], "description"=>"<p>Self-Censorship Strategies in Use by Researchers</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strategies"], "article_id"=>585825, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Joanna Kempner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050222.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Self_Censorship_Strategies_in_Use_by_Researchers_/585825", "title"=>"Self-Censorship Strategies in Use by Researchers", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-11-18 01:37:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/452613"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies.</p> <h3>Methods and Findings</h3><p>Drawing on interview (<em>n</em> = 30) and survey data (<em>n</em> = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chilling", "researchers"], "article_id"=>149156, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Mathematics", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Joanna Kempner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050222", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Chilling_Effect_How_Do_Researchers_React_to_Controversy_/149156", "title"=>"The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-11-18 02:32:36"}

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Relative Metric

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