Muscle-Strengthening and Conditioning Activities and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study in Two Cohorts of US Women
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{"title"=>"Muscle-Strengthening and Conditioning Activities and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study in Two Cohorts of US Women", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anders", "last_name"=>"Grøntved", "scopus_author_id"=>"34868011900"}, {"first_name"=>"An", "last_name"=>"Pan", "scopus_author_id"=>"56108327800"}, {"first_name"=>"Rania A.", "last_name"=>"Mekary", "scopus_author_id"=>"26635679700"}, {"first_name"=>"Meir", "last_name"=>"Stampfer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55541278700"}, {"first_name"=>"Walter C.", "last_name"=>"Willett", "scopus_author_id"=>"56803239300"}, {"first_name"=>"Jo Ann E.", "last_name"=>"Manson", "scopus_author_id"=>"24360265600"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank B.", "last_name"=>"Hu", "scopus_author_id"=>"36038688700"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Medicine", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893723133", "isbn"=>"1549-1676", "pmid"=>"24453948", "issn"=>"15491277", "sgr"=>"84893723133", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587", "pui"=>"372349014"}, "id"=>"2df2474f-3d43-3334-a334-9df137cb360c", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: It is well established that aerobic physical activity can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether muscle-strengthening activities are beneficial for the prevention of T2D is unclear. This study examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities with the risk of T2D in women.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively followed up 99,316 middle-aged and older women for 8 years from the Nurses' Health Study ([NHS] aged 53-81 years, 2000-2008) and Nurses' Health Study II ([NHSII] aged 36-55 years, 2001-2009), who were free of diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Participants reported weekly time spent on resistance exercise, lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (yoga, stretching, toning), and aerobic moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and in 2004/2005. Cox regression with adjustment for major determinants for T2D was carried out to examine the influence of these types of activities on T2D risk. During 705,869 person years of follow-up, 3,491 incident T2D cases were documented. In multivariable adjusted models including aerobic MVPA, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2D for women performing 1-29, 30-59, 60-150, and >150 min/week of total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities was 0.83, 0.93, 0.75, and 0.60 compared to women reporting no muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities (p<0.001 for trend). Furthermore, resistance exercise and lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises were each independently associated with lower risk of T2D in pooled analyses. Women who engaged in at least 150 min/week of aerobic MVPA and at least 60 min/week of muscle-strengthening activities had substantial risk reduction compared with inactive women (pooled RR = 0.33 [95% CI 0.29-0.38]). Limitations to the study include that muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity and other types of physical activity were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire and that the study population consisted of registered nurses with mostly European ancestry.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that engagement in muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities (resistance exercise, yoga, stretching, toning) is associated with a lower risk of T2D. Engagement in both aerobic MVPA and muscle-strengthening type activity is associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of T2D in middle-aged and older women.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/musclestrengthening-conditioning-activities-risk-type-2-diabetes-prospective-study-two-cohorts-women", "reader_count"=>85, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Philosophy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>31, "Sports and Recreations"=>13, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>31}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>13}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Ecuador"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Australia"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347100"], "description"=>"<p>Dotted lines are 95% CI for the trend obtained from restricted cubic spline regression (3 knots) truncated at 7 hours/week (≈99th percentile). Estimates were adjusted for age (months), smoking (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (0, 1–5, >5 g/d), coffee intake (0, <1, 1–3, 3–5, >5 cups/day), race (white, non-white), family history of diabetes, post menopausal hormone use (never, past, current), intake of total energy, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio, cereal fiber, wholegrain, and glycemic load (all dietary factors in quintiles), aerobic physical activity (0, 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, >150 min/week), and resistance exercise (0, 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, >150 min/week). <i>p</i> = 0.80 for non-linear response.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "muscular", "conditioning", "exercises", "women"], "article_id"=>900848, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dose_response_relationship_between_lower_intensity_muscular_conditioning_exercises_hours_week_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_women_from_the_Nurses_Health_Study_/900848", "title"=>"Dose-response relationship between lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (hours/week) and risk of type 2 diabetes in women from the Nurses' Health Study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347101"], "description"=>"<p>Dotted lines are 95% CI for the trend obtained from restricted cubic spline regression (3 knots) truncated at 7 hours/week (≈99th percentile). Estimates were adjusted for age (months), smoking (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (0, 1–5, >5 g/d), coffee intake (0, <1, 1–3, 3–5, >5 cups/day), race (white, non-white), family history of diabetes, post menopausal hormone use (never, past, current), intake of total energy, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio, cereal fiber, wholegrain, and glycemic load (all dietary factors in quintiles), oral contraceptive use (never, past, current), menopausal status (pre, post), and aerobic physical activity (0, 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, >150 min/week), and resistance exercise (0, 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, >150 min/week). <i>p</i> = 0.53 for non-linear response.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "women"], "article_id"=>900850, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dose_response_relationship_between_resistance_exercise_hours_week_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_women_from_the_Nurses_Health_Study_II_/900850", "title"=>"Dose-response relationship between resistance exercise (hours/week) and risk of type 2 diabetes in women from the Nurses' Health Study II.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347103"], "description"=>"<p>Women in the category “Insufficient” engage in some activity but less than recommended. Data are pooled estimates (fixed effect) of RR's with 95% CI from multivariable cox regression models adjusted for age (months), smoking (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (0, 1–5, >5 g/d), coffee intake (0, <1, 1–3, 3–5, >5 cups/day), race (white, non-white), family history of diabetes, post menopausal hormone use (never, past, current), intake of total energy, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio, cereal fiber, wholegrain, and glycemic load (all dietary factors in quintiles), oral contraceptive use (only NHSII: never, past, current), menopausal status (only NHSII: pre, post). Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and aerobic MVPA were mutually adjusted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "aerobic", "recommendations"], "article_id"=>900851, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Muscle_strengthening_and_aerobic_activity_according_to_recommendations_13_15_and_type_2_diabetes_risk_/900851", "title"=>"Muscle-strengthening and aerobic activity according to recommendations [13]–[15] and type 2 diabetes risk.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347104"], "description"=>"<p>Data are relative risks (95% CI). Model 1 was adjusted for age (months), smoking (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (0, 1–5, >5 g/d), coffee intake (0, <1, 1–3, 3–5, >5 cups/day), race (white, non-white), family history of diabetes, post menopausal hormone use (never, past, current), intake of total energy, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio, cereal fiber, wholegrain, and glycemic load (all dietary factors in quintiles), oral contraceptive use (only NHSII: never, past, current), menopausal status (only NHSII: pre, post), resistance exercise (0, 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, >150 min/week) and lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (0, 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, >150 min/week). Model 2 was additionally adjusted for BMI (continues). Aerobic MVPA consists of brisk walking, jogging, running, bicycling, tennis, swimming, other aerobic exercise, other vigorous exercise, and stair climbing.</p><p>Combined using fixed effect pooling of estimates from multivariable adjusted models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "moderate-and-vigorous", "women", "ii"], "article_id"=>900852, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aerobic_moderate_and_vigorous_physical_activity_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_women_from_the_Nurses_Health_Study_2000_8211_2008_and_Nurses_Health_Study_II_2001_8211_2009_/900852", "title"=>"Aerobic moderate-and-vigorous physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in women from the Nurses' Health Study (2000–2008) and Nurses' Health Study II (2001–2009).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347105"], "description"=>"<p>Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities were defined as engaging in at least two times/week (we approximated this to be equivalent to ≥60 min/week). Aerobic MVP was defined as ≥150 min/week of at least moderate intensity. Data are relative risks (95% CI). Multivariable model included age (months), smoking (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (0, 1–5, >5 g/d), coffee intake (0, <1, 1–3, 3–5, >5 cups/day), race (white, non-white), family history of diabetes, post menopausal hormone use (never, past, current), intake of total energy, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio, cereal fiber, wholegrain, and glycemic load (all dietary factors in quintiles), oral contraceptive use (only NHSII: never, past, current), menopausal status (only NHSII: pre, post).</p><p><sup>a</sup> Combined using fixed effect pooling of estimates from multivariable adjusted models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "muscle-strengthening", "conditioning", "activities", "aerobic", "mvpa", "recommendations", "women", "ii"], "article_id"=>900853, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Joint_association_of_total_muscle_strengthening_and_conditioning_activities_and_aerobic_MVPA_according_to_recommendations_13_15_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_women_from_the_Nurses_Health_Study_2000_2008_and_Nurses_Health_Study_II_2001_2009_/900853", "title"=>"Joint association of total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and aerobic MVPA according to recommendations [13]–[15] and risk of type 2 diabetes in women from the Nurses' Health Study (2000–2008) and Nurses' Health Study II (2001–2009).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347106"], "description"=>"<p>Data are relative risks (95% CI).</p><p><sup>a</sup> Adjusted for age (months), smoking (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (0, 1–5, >5 g/d), coffee intake (0, <1, 1–3, 3–5, >5 cups/day), race (white, non-white), family history of diabetes, post menopausal hormone use (never, past, current), intake of total energy, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio, cereal fiber, wholegrain, and glycemic load (all dietary factors in quintiles), oral contraceptive use (only NHSII: never, past, current), menopausal status (only NHSII: pre, post), aerobic physical activity (categorized similar to muscle-strengthening activities), history of hypertension and raised cholesterol.</p><p><sup>b</sup> Combined using fixed effect pooling.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "muscle-strengthening", "conditioning", "activities", "women", "ii", "hypertension", "raised"], "article_id"=>900854, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_muscle_strengthening_and_conditioning_activities_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_women_from_the_Nurses_Health_Study_and_Nurses_Health_Study_II_with_additional_adjustment_for_history_of_hypertension_and_raised_cholesterol_/900854", "title"=>"Total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes in women from the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II with additional adjustment for history of hypertension and raised cholesterol.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347107"], "description"=>"<p>Data are relative risks (95% CI). Adjusted for age (months), smoking (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (0, 1–5, >5 g/d), coffee intake (0, <1, 1–3, 3–5, >5 cups/day), race (white, non-white), family history of diabetes, post menopausal hormone use (never, past, current), intake of total energy, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio, cereal fiber, wholegrain, and glycemic load (all dietary factors in quintiles), oral contraceptive use (only NHSII: never, past, current), menopausal status (only NHSII: pre, post), and aerobic physical activity (none, 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, >150 min/week).</p><p>PY, person years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "muscle-strengthening", "conditioning", "activities", "stratified"], "article_id"=>900855, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_muscle_strengthening_and_conditioning_activities_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_stratified_by_body_mass_index_2_/900855", "title"=>"Total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes stratified by body mass index (<25, 25–<30, ≥30 kg/m<sup>2</sup>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347108"], "description"=>"<p>Data are relative risks (95% CI).</p><p><sup>a</sup> Adjusted for age (months), smoking (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (0, 1–5, >5 g/d), coffee intake (0, <1, 1–3, 3–5, >5 cups/day), race (white, non-white), family history of diabetes, post menopausal hormone use (never, past, current), intake of total energy, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio, cereal fiber, wholegrain, and glycemic load (all dietary factors in quintiles), oral contraceptive use (only NHSII: never, past, current), menopausal status (only NHSII: pre, post).</p><p><sup>b</sup> Additionally adjusted for aerobic physical activity (categorized similar to muscle-strengthening activities), and resistance exercise and lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises were mutually adjusted.</p><p><sup>c</sup> Additionally adjusted for BMI (continuous).</p><p><sup>d</sup> Combined using fixed effect pooling.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "conditioning", "activities", "women", "ii"], "article_id"=>900856, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Muscle_strengthening_and_conditioning_activities_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_in_women_from_the_Nurses_Health_Study_2000_8211_2008_and_Nurses_Health_Study_II_2001_8211_2009_/900856", "title"=>"Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes in women from the Nurses' Health Study (2000–2008) and Nurses' Health Study II (2001–2009).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347109"], "description"=>"<p>Data are relative risks (95% CI). Multivariable model included age (months), smoking (never, past, or current), alcohol consumption (0, 1–5, >5 g/d), coffee intake (0, <1, 1–3, 3–5, >5 cups/day), race (white, non-white), family history of diabetes, post menopausal hormone use (never, past, current), intake of total energy, trans fat, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio, cereal fiber, wholegrain, and glycemic load (all dietary factors in quintiles), oral contraceptive use (only NHSII: never, past, current), menopausal status (only NHSII: pre, post).</p><p><sup>a</sup> Combined using fixed effect pooling of estimates from multivariable adjusted models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "muscle-strengthening", "conditioning", "activities", "restricted", "women", "did", "aerobic"], "article_id"=>900857, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_muscle_strengthening_and_conditioning_activities_and_risk_of_type_2_diabetes_restricted_to_women_who_did_not_engage_in_aerobic_activity_/900857", "title"=>"Total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities and risk of type 2 diabetes restricted to women who did not engage in aerobic activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347110"], "description"=>"<p>Muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity is defined as resistance exercise and lower intensity conditioning exercise (yoga, stretching, toning). Values are means (standard deviation [SD]) or percentages and are standardized to the age distribution of the study population.</p><p><sup>a</sup> Aerobic MVPA consists of brisk walking, jogging, running, bicycling, tennis, swimming, other aerobic exercise, other vigorous exercise, and stair climbing.</p><p>P∶S ratio, polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "baseline", "participating", "women", "ii", "minutes", "muscle-strengthening", "conditioning"], "article_id"=>900858, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>51, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_adjusted_baseline_characteristics_of_51_642_participating_women_from_the_Nurses_Health_Study_and_47_674_women_from_the_Nurses_Health_Study_II_by_minutes_of_muscle_strengthening_and_conditioning_activity_per_week_/900858", "title"=>"Age-adjusted baseline characteristics of 51,642 participating women from the Nurses' Health Study and 47,674 women from the Nurses' Health Study II by minutes of muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity per week.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347111", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347112", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347113", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347114", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1347115"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>It is well established that aerobic physical activity can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether muscle-strengthening activities are beneficial for the prevention of T2D is unclear. This study examined the association of muscle-strengthening activities with the risk of T2D in women.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>We prospectively followed up 99,316 middle-aged and older women for 8 years from the Nurses' Health Study ([NHS] aged 53–81 years, 2000–2008) and Nurses' Health Study II ([NHSII] aged 36–55 years, 2001–2009), who were free of diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases at baseline. Participants reported weekly time spent on resistance exercise, lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises (yoga, stretching, toning), and aerobic moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and in 2004/2005. Cox regression with adjustment for major determinants for T2D was carried out to examine the influence of these types of activities on T2D risk. During 705,869 person years of follow-up, 3,491 incident T2D cases were documented. In multivariable adjusted models including aerobic MVPA, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2D for women performing 1–29, 30–59, 60–150, and >150 min/week of total muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities was 0.83, 0.93, 0.75, and 0.60 compared to women reporting no muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities (<i>p</i><0.001 for trend). Furthermore, resistance exercise and lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises were each independently associated with lower risk of T2D in pooled analyses. Women who engaged in at least 150 min/week of aerobic MVPA and at least 60 min/week of muscle-strengthening activities had substantial risk reduction compared with inactive women (pooled RR = 0.33 [95% CI 0.29–0.38]). Limitations to the study include that muscle-strengthening and conditioning activity and other types of physical activity were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire and that the study population consisted of registered nurses with mostly European ancestry.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Our study suggests that engagement in muscle-strengthening and conditioning activities (resistance exercise, yoga, stretching, toning) is associated with a lower risk of T2D. Engagement in both aerobic MVPA and muscle-strengthening type activity is associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of T2D in middle-aged and older women.</p><p><i>Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary</i></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "Public health", "Sports and exercise medicine", "conditioning", "activities", "prospective", "cohorts"], "article_id"=>900859, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Anders Grøntved", "An Pan", "Rania A. Mekary", "Meir Stampfer", "Walter C. Willett", "JoAnn E. Manson", "Frank B. Hu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001587.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Muscle_Strengthening_and_Conditioning_Activities_and_Risk_of_Type_2_Diabetes_A_Prospective_Study_in_Two_Cohorts_of_US_Women_/900859", "title"=>"Muscle-Strengthening and Conditioning Activities and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study in Two Cohorts of US Women", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-01-14 03:16:16"}

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Relative Metric

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