Enhanced Leishmania braziliensis Infection Following Pre-Exposure to Sandfly Saliva
Publication Date
November 28, 2007
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Tatiana R. De Moura, Fabiano Oliveira, Fernanda O. Novais, José Carlos Miranda, et al
Volume
1
Issue
2
Pages
e84
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0000084
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060088
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2100374
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/18060088
Web of Science
000261707300006
Scopus
42549148646
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/enhanced-leishmania-braziliensis-infection-following-preexposure-sandfly-saliva
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Enhanced Leishmania braziliensis infection following pre-exposure to sandfly saliva", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tatiana R.", "last_name"=>"de Moura", "scopus_author_id"=>"8542088400"}, {"first_name"=>"Fabiano", "last_name"=>"Oliveira", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102071558"}, {"first_name"=>"Fernanda O.", "last_name"=>"Novais", "scopus_author_id"=>"8542087500"}, {"first_name"=>"José Carlos", "last_name"=>"Miranda", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202982295"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorge", "last_name"=>"Clarêncio", "scopus_author_id"=>"8542087700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ivonise", "last_name"=>"Follador", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602397950"}, {"first_name"=>"Edgar M.", "last_name"=>"Carvalho", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103093577"}, {"first_name"=>"Jesus G.", "last_name"=>"Valenzuela", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102896732"}, {"first_name"=>"Manoel", "last_name"=>"Barral-Netto", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005127861"}, {"first_name"=>"Aldina", "last_name"=>"Barral", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006303214"}, {"first_name"=>"Cláudia", "last_name"=>"Brodskyn", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603929325"}, {"first_name"=>"Camila I.", "last_name"=>"de Oliveira", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102223141"}], "year"=>2007, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-42549148646", "pui"=>"352024649", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084", "sgr"=>"42549148646", "pmid"=>"18060088", "issn"=>"1935-2735"}, "id"=>"0dc7b96b-4773-3ec2-980e-af39b0c0857b", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Sand fly saliva has an array of pharmacological and immunomodulatory components, and immunity to saliva protects against Leishmania infection. In the present study, we have studied the immune response against Lutzomyia intermedia saliva, the main vector of Leishmania braziliensis in Brazil, and the effects of saliva pre-exposure on L. braziliensis infection employing an intradermal experimental model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c mice immunized with L. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) developed a saliva-specific antibody response and a cellular immune response with presence of both IFN-gamma and IL-4. The inflammatory infiltrate observed in SGS-immunized mice was comprised of numerous polymorphonuclear and few mononuclear cells. Mice challenged with live L. braziliensis in the presence of saliva were not protected although lesion development was delayed. The inoculation site and draining lymph node showed continuous parasite replication and low IFN-gamma to IL-4 ratio, indicating that pre-exposure to L. intermedia saliva leads to modulation of the immune response. Furthermore, in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, patients with active lesions displayed higher levels of anti-L. intermedia saliva antibodies when compared to individuals with a positive skin test result for Leishmania. CONCLUSION: These results show that pre-exposure to sand fly saliva plays an important role in the outcome of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in both mice and humans. They emphasize possible hurdles in the development of vaccines based on sand fly saliva and the need to identify and select the individual salivary candidates instead of using whole salivary mixture that may favor a non-protective response.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/enhanced-leishmania-braziliensis-infection-following-preexposure-sandfly-saliva", "reader_count"=>33, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/942283"], "description"=>"<p>Western blot was performed with human sera from CL individuals (n = 4) or from healthy individuals with either a negative (n = 4) or a positive (n = 4) anti-<i>Leishmania</i> DTH skin test. The numbers represent the position of the mol wt markers. (-) Serum from control individual.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blot", "salivary", "proteins", "recognized", "sera", "exposed"], "article_id"=>612672, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Tatiana R. de Moura", "Fabiano Oliveira", "Fernanda O. Novais", "Jose Carlos Miranda", "Jorge Clarencio", "Ivonise Follador", "Edgar M. Carvalho", "Jesus G. Valenzuela", "Manoel Barral-Netto", "Aldina Barral", "Claudia Brodskyn", "Camila I. de Oliveira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Western_blot_of_Lutzomyia_intermedia_salivary_proteins_recognized_by_sera_from_exposed_individuals_/612672", "title"=>"Western blot of <i>Lutzomyia intermedia</i> salivary proteins recognized by sera from exposed individuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:33:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/941889"], "description"=>"<p>BALB/c mice (3–5 per group) were inoculated three times with PBS (open bars) or SGS (closed bars). Two weeks after the last inoculation, mice were challenged with 10<sup>5 </sup><i>L. braziliensis</i>+SGS (equivalent to 1 pair of salivary glands/animal). Ear (A) and draining lymph node (B) parasite loads were determined at two, four and 16 weeks post infection via a limiting dilution assay. Bars represent the means and standard errors of the means from three independent experiments. (*p<0.05)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mice", "immunized", "sgs", "pbs", "challenged"], "article_id"=>612289, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Tatiana R. de Moura", "Fabiano Oliveira", "Fernanda O. Novais", "Jose Carlos Miranda", "Jorge Clarencio", "Ivonise Follador", "Edgar M. Carvalho", "Jesus G. Valenzuela", "Manoel Barral-Netto", "Aldina Barral", "Claudia Brodskyn", "Camila I. de Oliveira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parasite_load_estimate_in_BALB_c_mice_immunized_with_L_intermedia_SGS_or_PBS_and_challenged_with_L_braziliensis_in_the_presence_of_L_intermedia_SGS_/612289", "title"=>"Parasite load estimate in BALB/c mice immunized with <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS or PBS and challenged with <i>L. braziliensis</i> in the presence of <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:31:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/942025"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were inoculated three times with PBS or SGS. Two weeks after the last inoculation, mice were challenged with 10<sup>5 </sup><i>L. braziliensis</i>+SGS (equivalent to 1 pair of salivary glands/animal). Two, four and 16 weeks post challenge, draining lymph node cells were collected and stimulated with <i>L. braziliensis</i>+SGS (A) or with SGS alone (B). Culture supernatants were collected and cytokine presence was determined by ELISA. The data represent the means and standard errors of the means from three independent experiments, each performed with five mice per group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["il-4", "mice", "inoculated", "sgs", "pbs", "challenged"], "article_id"=>612419, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Tatiana R. de Moura", "Fabiano Oliveira", "Fernanda O. Novais", "Jose Carlos Miranda", "Jorge Clarencio", "Ivonise Follador", "Edgar M. Carvalho", "Jesus G. Valenzuela", "Manoel Barral-Netto", "Aldina Barral", "Claudia Brodskyn", "Camila I. de Oliveira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_IFN_to_IL_4_ratio_in_BALB_c_mice_inoculated_with_L_intermedia_SGS_or_PBS_and_challenged_with_L_braziliensis_in_the_presence_of_L_intermedia_SGS_/612419", "title"=>"IFN-γ to IL-4 ratio in BALB/c mice inoculated with <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS or PBS and challenged with <i>L. braziliensis</i> in the presence of <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:31:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/941730"], "description"=>"<p>Mice received three inoculations with SGS (A and B) or PBS (C and D). Two weeks after the last inoculation, mice received a challenge with SGS in the contra-lateral ear. Tissue sections were obtained 24 h after challenge and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed under a light microscope. Magnifications are ×40 (A and C) and ×200 (B and D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspects", "animals", "immunized"], "article_id"=>612132, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Tatiana R. de Moura", "Fabiano Oliveira", "Fernanda O. Novais", "Jose Carlos Miranda", "Jorge Clarencio", "Ivonise Follador", "Edgar M. Carvalho", "Jesus G. Valenzuela", "Manoel Barral-Netto", "Aldina Barral", "Claudia Brodskyn", "Camila I. de Oliveira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histological_aspects_in_animals_immunized_with_L_intermedia_SGS_/612132", "title"=>"Histological aspects in animals immunized with <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:30:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/941796"], "description"=>"<p>BALB/c mice (3–5 per group) were inoculated three times in the right ear with <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS (closed bars) or with PBS (open bars) and were challenged in the left ear with <i>L. braziliensis</i> plus <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS (equivalent to 1 pair of salivary gland). (A) The course of lesion development was monitored weekly and bars represent the means and standard errors of the means from three independent experiments. (B) Disease burden in mice inoculated with PBS or SGS and challenged with SGS+<i>L. braziliensis</i>. The areas contained underneath the curves obtained in (A) for each experimental and control mouse were compared. (*p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sgs", "immunized", "mice"], "article_id"=>612197, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Tatiana R. de Moura", "Fabiano Oliveira", "Fernanda O. Novais", "Jose Carlos Miranda", "Jorge Clarencio", "Ivonise Follador", "Edgar M. Carvalho", "Jesus G. Valenzuela", "Manoel Barral-Netto", "Aldina Barral", "Claudia Brodskyn", "Camila I. de Oliveira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lesion_development_in_L_intermedia_SGS_immunized_BALB_c_mice_following_infection_with_L_braziliensis_SGS_/612197", "title"=>"Lesion development in <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS immunized BALB/c mice following infection with <i>L. braziliensis</i>+SGS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:30:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/941479"], "description"=>"<p>BALB/c mice (3–5 per group) received 3 inoculations of PBS (open bars) or SGS (closed bars). (A) ELISA was performed with sera from mice inoculated with PBS (open bars) or SGS (closed bars). (B) IgG subclasses present in immune sera were determined by ELISA using IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b conjugates. Purified IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b (dotted bars) were employed as control IgG subclass (positive controls). Bars represent the means and standard errors of the means from three independent experiments (*p<0.05). (C) Commassie blue-stained SDS-PAGE gel after electrophoresis of <i>L. intermedia</i> (L.int) and <i>L. longipalpis</i> (L.lon) SGS. The numbers represent the position of the mol wt markers. (D) Western blots of the gels showed in C, probed with sera from <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS immunized mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antibody", "immunization", "mice"], "article_id"=>611886, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Tatiana R. de Moura", "Fabiano Oliveira", "Fernanda O. Novais", "Jose Carlos Miranda", "Jorge Clarencio", "Ivonise Follador", "Edgar M. Carvalho", "Jesus G. Valenzuela", "Manoel Barral-Netto", "Aldina Barral", "Claudia Brodskyn", "Camila I. de Oliveira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anti_saliva_antibody_response_following_immunization_of_BALB_c_mice_with_Lutzomyia_intermedia_SGS_/611886", "title"=>"Anti-saliva antibody response following immunization of BALB/c mice with <i>Lutzomyia intermedia</i> SGS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:28:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/941551"], "description"=>"<p>BALB/c mice (3–5 per group) received 3 inoculations of PBS (open bars) or SGS (closed bars). Fifteen days after the last inoculation, draining lymph nodes were pooled and cells were preincubated with Brefeldin A for four hours before being stained. Data represent the percentages of cells with signals for the particular cytokine that were greater than the background signals established using isotype controls. Bars represent the means and standard errors of the means of one experiment, representative of three independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytokine", "cd4", "cd8", "cells", "immunization", "mice", "lutzomyia", "intermedia"], "article_id"=>611952, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Tatiana R. de Moura", "Fabiano Oliveira", "Fernanda O. Novais", "Jose Carlos Miranda", "Jorge Clarencio", "Ivonise Follador", "Edgar M. Carvalho", "Jesus G. Valenzuela", "Manoel Barral-Netto", "Aldina Barral", "Claudia Brodskyn", "Camila I. de Oliveira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intracellular_cytokine_production_by_CD4_and_CD8_T_cells_following_immunization_of_BALB_c_mice_with_Lutzomyia_intermedia_SGS_/611952", "title"=>"Intracellular cytokine production by CD4 and CD8 T cells following immunization of BALB/c mice with Lutzomyia intermedia SGS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:29:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/942150"], "description"=>"<p>(A) ELISA was performed against <i>L. intermedia</i> and <i>L. longipalpis</i> SGS using human sera were from individuals from a CL endemic area (n = 100) or from control individuals (n = 10). (B) ELISA was performed against <i>L. intermedia</i> SGS with human sera from CL individuals (n = 16) or from healthy individuals with either a negative (n = 42) or a positive (n = 32) anti-<i>Leishmania</i> DTH skin test. The ordinate represents the absorbance of the ELISA reaction of these sera against SGS. The symbols indicate results obtained with each serum tested and lines represent their median values (***p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["serum", "igg"], "article_id"=>612547, "categories"=>["Immunology", "Physics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Tatiana R. de Moura", "Fabiano Oliveira", "Fernanda O. Novais", "Jose Carlos Miranda", "Jorge Clarencio", "Ivonise Follador", "Edgar M. Carvalho", "Jesus G. Valenzuela", "Manoel Barral-Netto", "Aldina Barral", "Claudia Brodskyn", "Camila I. de Oliveira"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000084.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Human_serum_IgG_response_against_SGS_/612547", "title"=>"Human serum IgG response against SGS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 11:32:29"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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