Where, When and Why Do Tsetse Contact Humans? Answers from Studies in a National Park of Zimbabwe
Publication Date
August 28, 2012
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Stephen J. Torr, Andrew Chamisa, T. N. Clement Mangwiro & Glyn A. Vale
Volume
6
Issue
8
Pages
e1791
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001791
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22953013
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3429383
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22953013
Web of Science
000308497100027
Scopus
84866000697
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/tsetse-contact-humans-answers-studies-national-park-zimbabwe
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Where, When and Why Do Tsetse Contact Humans? Answers from Studies in a National Park of Zimbabwe", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stephen J.", "last_name"=>"Torr", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004101045"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Chamisa", "scopus_author_id"=>"54580722300"}, {"first_name"=>"T. N.Clement", "last_name"=>"Mangwiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506126428"}, {"first_name"=>"Glyn A.", "last_name"=>"Vale", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006061927"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84866000697", "pui"=>"365599527", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791", "issn"=>"19352727", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84866000697", "pmid"=>"22953013"}, "id"=>"b21fa7df-5869-3911-8730-062a8b373e2b", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Sleeping sickness, also called human African trypanosomiasis, is transmitted by the tsetse, a blood-sucking fly confined to sub-Saharan Africa. The form of the disease in West and Central Africa is carried mainly by species of tsetse that inhabit riverine woodland and feed avidly on humans. In contrast, the vectors for the East and Southern African form of the disease are usually savannah species that feed mostly on wild and domestic animals and bite humans infrequently, mainly because the odours produced by humans can be repellent. Hence, it takes a long time to catch many savannah tsetse from people, which in turn means that studies of the nature of contact between savannah tsetse and humans, and the ways of minimizing it, have been largely neglected.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The savannah tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes, were caught from men in the Mana Pools National park of Zimbabwe. Mostly the catch consisted of young G. m. morsitans, with little food reserve. Catches were increased by 4-8 times if the men were walking, not stationary, and increased about ten times more if they rode on a truck at 10 km/h. Catches were unaffected if the men used deodorant or were baited with artificial ox odour, but declined by about 95% if the men were with an ox. Surprisingly, men pursuing their normal daily activities were bitten about as much when in or near buildings as when in woodland. Catches from oxen and a standard ox-like trap were poor indices of the number and physiological state of tsetse attacking men.\\n\\nCONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The search for new strategies to minimize the contact between humans and savannah tsetse should focus on that occurring in buildings and vehicles. There is a need to design a man-like trap to help to provide an index of sleeping sickness risk.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/tsetse-contact-humans-answers-studies-national-park-zimbabwe", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585344"], "description"=>"<p>Transformed (Trans) and detransformed (Detrains) mean daily catches of male and female <i>G. m. morsitans</i> combined, from mobile and stationary men in a number of separate experiments. Means are accompanied by the standard error (SE) of the transformed means, and the index for efficacy, <i>i.e</i>., the detransformed mean catch of each treatment expressed as a proportion of the standard. In any one experiment, detransformed means not associated with the same letter differ at <i>P</i><0.05.</p><p>AOP = a synthetic blend of acetone, octenol and phenols found in natural host odour. See text for further details.</p>1<p>Expt 1: Aug-Dec 2009, 19 replicates. Expt 2: Jan-Apr 2010, 17 replicates. Expt 3: Apr-Jun 2010, 8 replicates. Expt 4: May-Jul 2010, 14 replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "stationary", "men"], "article_id"=>255840, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catches_of_G_m_morsitans_from_mobile_and_stationary_men_in_various_experiments_/255840", "title"=>"Catches of <i>G. m. morsitans</i> from mobile and stationary men in various experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:15:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585413"], "description"=>"<p>Catches are the total number of tsetse caught from all vehicles passing the traffic barrier at the junction of the tarred road from Chirundu and the untarred road from Mana Pools National Park between December 2006 to November 2010. Each vehicle inspected was recorded as having come from either the untarred road from the Mana Pools National Park or the tarred road from Chirundu.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "tsetse", "vehicles", "leaving", "zambezi", "zimbabwe"], "article_id"=>255906, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catches_of_tsetse_from_vehicles_leaving_the_Zambezi_Valley_of_Zimbabwe_at_various_seasons_/255906", "title"=>"Catches of tsetse from vehicles leaving the Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe at various seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:15:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585383"], "description"=>"<p>Transformed (Trans) and detransformed (Detrans) mean daily catches from a mobile or stationary ox with men over 19 replicates of Expt 1, <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791#pntd-0001791-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>. Means are accompanied by the standard error (SE) of the transformed means. For any one sex and species, detransformed means not associated with the same letter differ at P<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "tsetse", "stationary", "ox", "accompanied"], "article_id"=>255875, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catches_of_tsetse_from_a_mobile_or_stationary_ox_accompanied_by_men_/255875", "title"=>"Catches of tsetse from a mobile or stationary ox accompanied by men.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:15:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585317"], "description"=>"<p>Transformed (Trans) and detransformed (Detrans) mean daily catches are the catches of male and female <i>G. m. morsitan</i>s combined from traps or men and the respective standard errors of the transformed means. The mean catches from humans are presented as a percent of that from the traps. In any one column, means not associated with the same letter differ at P<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "traps"], "article_id"=>255812, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catches_of_G_m_morsitan_s_from_traps_and_humans_/255812", "title"=>"Catches of <i>G. m. morsitan</i>s from traps and humans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:14:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585248"], "description"=>"<p>The men were inside buildings or outside, either near the station buildings or in woodland.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "caught", "men"], "article_id"=>255749, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Catch_of_G_m_morsitans_caught_from_men_inside_or_outside_at_various_seasons_/255749", "title"=>"Catch of <i>G. m. morsitans</i> caught from men inside or outside at various seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:14:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584970"], "description"=>"<p>Percent distribution of ovarian categories of female <i>G. m. morsitans</i> from (A) men, (B) ox and (C) traps. Sample sizes of 257, 94 and 283 for men, ox and traps, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "categories", "ox"], "article_id"=>255462, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ovarian_categories_of_female_G_m_morsitans_from_A_men_B_ox_and_C_traps_/255462", "title"=>"Ovarian categories of female <i>G. m. morsitans</i> from (A) men, (B) ox and (C) traps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:13:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585125"], "description"=>"<p>Percent distribution of uterine contents of female <i>G. pallidipes</i> in ovarian categories>0, from (A) men, (B) ox and (C) traps. Sample sizes of 16, 115 and 1498 for men, ox and traps, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "contents", "ox"], "article_id"=>255624, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Uterine_contents_of_female_G_pallidipes_from_A_men_B_ox_and_C_traps_/255624", "title"=>"Uterine contents of female <i>G. pallidipes</i> from (A) men, (B) ox and (C) traps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:13:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585449"], "description"=>"<p>Means of the fatless dry weight (mg) of the thorax, legs and head (TW), and the fatless abdominal weight (AB%) and fat weight (Fat%) as percentages of the TW, together with the standard error (SE) of the means, for various samples sizes (N) of <i>G. m. morsitans</i> and <i>G. pallidipes</i> caught probing or alighted head-up on men and an ox at various seasons. In any one column for any one species, means not associated with the same letter differ at P<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "tsetse", "caught", "men", "oxen"], "article_id"=>255938, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nutritional_status_of_male_tsetse_caught_from_men_or_oxen_at_various_seasons_/255938", "title"=>"Nutritional status of male tsetse caught from men or oxen at various seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:15:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585032"], "description"=>"<p>Percent distribution of uterine contents of female <i>G. m. morsitans</i> in ovarian categories>0, from (A) men, (B) ox and (C) traps. Sample sizes of 189, 78 and 270 for men, ox and traps, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "contents", "ox"], "article_id"=>255536, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Uterine_contents_of_female_G_m_morsitans_from_A_men_B_ox_and_C_traps_/255536", "title"=>"Uterine contents of female <i>G. m. morsitans</i> from (A) men, (B) ox and (C) traps.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:13:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/585286"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers of tsetse alighting on various parts of men.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "tsetse", "alighting", "parts"], "article_id"=>255780, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Numbers_of_tsetse_alighting_on_various_parts_of_men_/255780", "title"=>"Numbers of tsetse alighting on various parts of men.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:14:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/584903"], "description"=>"<p>Percent distribution of wing fray classes of male <i>G. m. morsitans</i> caught from men (N = 211) and ox (N = 100).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Zoology", "Entomology", "fray", "classes", "caught", "men"], "article_id"=>255387, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Stephen J. Torr", "Andrew Chamisa", "T. N. Clement Mangwiro", "Glyn A. Vale"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001791.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wing_fray_classes_of_male_G_m_morsitans_caught_from_men_and_ox_/255387", "title"=>"Wing fray classes of male <i>G. m. morsitans</i> caught from men and ox.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 00:12:40"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

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