An In-Depth Analysis of a Piece of Shit: Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool
Publication Date
December 20, 2012
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Stefanie J. Krauth, Jean T. Coulibaly, Stefanie Knopp, Mahamadou Traoré, et al
Volume
6
Issue
12
Pages
e1969
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001969
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23285307
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527364
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23285307
Web of Science
000312910200033
Scopus
84872021167
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/indepth-analysis-piece-shit-distribution-schistosoma-mansoni-hookworm-eggs-human-stool
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"An In-Depth Analysis of a Piece of Shit: Distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stefanie J.", "last_name"=>"Krauth", "scopus_author_id"=>"35810562600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean T.", "last_name"=>"Coulibaly", "scopus_author_id"=>"41260999100"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefanie", "last_name"=>"Knopp", "scopus_author_id"=>"23485637900"}, {"first_name"=>"Mahamadou", "last_name"=>"Traoré", "scopus_author_id"=>"55410905900"}, {"first_name"=>"Eliézer K.", "last_name"=>"N'Goran", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003451565"}, {"first_name"=>"Jürg", "last_name"=>"Utzinger", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003667858"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19352727", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84872021167", "sgr"=>"84872021167", "pui"=>"368067397", "isbn"=>"1935-2735 (Electronic)\\r1935-2727 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23285307", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969"}, "id"=>"0cc107d8-dabf-366e-b6a3-17b92482556a", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND:An accurate diagnosis of helminth infection is important to improve patient management. However, there is considerable intra- and inter-specimen variation of helminth egg counts in human feces. Homogenization of stool samples has been suggested to improve diagnostic accuracy, but there are no detailed investigations. Rapid disintegration of hookworm eggs constitutes another problem in epidemiological surveys. We studied the spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm eggs in stool samples, the effect of homogenization, and determined egg counts over time in stool samples stored under different conditions.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY:Whole-stool samples were collected from 222 individuals in a rural part of south Côte d'Ivoire. Samples were cut into four pieces and helminth egg locations from the front to the back and from the center to the surface were analyzed. Some samples were homogenized and fecal egg counts (FECs) compared before and after homogenization. The effect of stool storing methods on FECs was investigated over time, comparing stool storage on ice, covering stool samples with a water-soaked tissue, or keeping stool samples in the shade.\\n\\nPRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We found no clear spatial pattern of S. mansoni and hookworm eggs in fecal samples. Homogenization decreased S. mansoni FECs (p = 0.026), while no effect was observed for hookworm and other soil-transmitted helminths. Hookworm FECs decreased over time. Storing stool samples on ice or covered with a moist tissue slowed down hookworm egg decay (p<0.005).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our findings have important implications for helminth diagnosis at the individual patient level and for epidemiological surveys, anthelmintic drug efficacy studies and monitoring of control programs. Specifically, homogenization of fecal samples is recommended for an accurate detection of S. mansoni eggs, while keeping collected stool samples cool and moist delayed the disintegration of hookworm eggs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/indepth-analysis-piece-shit-distribution-schistosoma-mansoni-hookworm-eggs-human-stool", "reader_count"=>291, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>82, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>83, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>36, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>82, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>21, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>83, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>36, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>160, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>9, "Computer Science"=>2, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>16, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Materials Science"=>3, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>33, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>9, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>33}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>9}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>18}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>8}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>9}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>160}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>16}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>12, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Switzerland"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Costa Rica"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>3, "Sweden"=>2, "Belgium"=>2, "Ireland"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>4, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>3, "Germany"=>7}, "group_count"=>8}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520612"], "description"=>"*<p>Nine helminth-positive stool samples were too small to allocate them to any consistency category.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stool", "samples", "consistency", "helminth", "222"], "article_id"=>191102, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stefanie J. Krauth", "Jean T. Coulibaly", "Stefanie Knopp", "Mahamadou Traoré", "Eliézer K. N'Goran", "Jürg Utzinger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_stool_samples_in_each_consistency_category_by_infection_status_any_helminth_infection_from_222_study_participants_from_Azagui_233_C_244_te_d_Ivoire_in_2010_/191102", "title"=>"Number of stool samples in each consistency category by infection status (any helminth infection), from 222 study participants from Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire, in 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:18:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520378"], "description"=>"<p>n, number of whole-stool samples; N, number of stool pieces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["detailing", "inclusion", "exclusion", "helminth"], "article_id"=>190874, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stefanie J. Krauth", "Jean T. Coulibaly", "Stefanie Knopp", "Mahamadou Traoré", "Eliézer K. N'Goran", "Jürg Utzinger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flowchart_detailing_inclusion_and_exclusion_of_study_participants_and_use_for_the_various_analysis_including_helminth_prevalences_/190874", "title"=>"Flowchart detailing inclusion and exclusion of study participants and use for the various analysis including helminth prevalences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:14:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520239"], "description"=>"<p>*Sausage-shaped-but-soft samples were processed like in (A) without taking samples from the center.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stool", "samples", "consistency", "whole-stool"], "article_id"=>190728, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stefanie J. Krauth", "Jean T. Coulibaly", "Stefanie Knopp", "Mahamadou Traoré", "Eliézer K. N'Goran", "Jürg Utzinger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>72, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Processing_of_stool_samples_according_to_consistency_including_whole_stool_homogenization_/190728", "title"=>"Processing of stool samples according to consistency including whole-stool homogenization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:12:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520521"], "description"=>"<p>Helminth prevalences and infection intensities among 125 helminth-positive study participants, from Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire, in 2010.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prevalences", "intensities", "125", "helminth-positive"], "article_id"=>191011, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stefanie J. Krauth", "Jean T. Coulibaly", "Stefanie Knopp", "Mahamadou Traoré", "Eliézer K. N'Goran", "Jürg Utzinger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Helminth_prevalences_and_infection_intensities_among_125_helminth_positive_study_participants_from_Azagui_233_C_244_te_d_Ivoire_in_2010_/191011", "title"=>"Helminth prevalences and infection intensities among 125 helminth-positive study participants, from Azaguié, Côte d'Ivoire, in 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:16:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520155"], "description"=>"<p>Instruction form on how to collect whole-stool samples for the study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["whole-stool", "samples"], "article_id"=>190641, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stefanie J. Krauth", "Jean T. Coulibaly", "Stefanie Knopp", "Mahamadou Traoré", "Eliézer K. N'Goran", "Jürg Utzinger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Instruction_form_on_how_to_collect_whole_stool_samples_for_the_study_/190641", "title"=>"Instruction form on how to collect whole-stool samples for the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:10:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282255", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282304"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>An accurate diagnosis of helminth infection is important to improve patient management. However, there is considerable intra- and inter-specimen variation of helminth egg counts in human feces. Homogenization of stool samples has been suggested to improve diagnostic accuracy, but there are no detailed investigations. Rapid disintegration of hookworm eggs constitutes another problem in epidemiological surveys. We studied the spatial distribution of <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> and hookworm eggs in stool samples, the effect of homogenization, and determined egg counts over time in stool samples stored under different conditions.</p> <h3>Methodology</h3><p>Whole-stool samples were collected from 222 individuals in a rural part of south Côte d'Ivoire. Samples were cut into four pieces and helminth egg locations from the front to the back and from the center to the surface were analyzed. Some samples were homogenized and fecal egg counts (FECs) compared before and after homogenization. The effect of stool storing methods on FECs was investigated over time, comparing stool storage on ice, covering stool samples with a water-soaked tissue, or keeping stool samples in the shade.</p> <h3>Principal Findings</h3><p>We found no clear spatial pattern of <em>S. mansoni</em> and hookworm eggs in fecal samples. Homogenization decreased <em>S. mansoni</em> FECs (p = 0.026), while no effect was observed for hookworm and other soil-transmitted helminths. Hookworm FECs decreased over time. Storing stool samples on ice or covered with a moist tissue slowed down hookworm egg decay (p<0.005).</p> <h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Our findings have important implications for helminth diagnosis at the individual patient level and for epidemiological surveys, anthelmintic drug efficacy studies and monitoring of control programs. Specifically, homogenization of fecal samples is recommended for an accurate detection of <em>S. mansoni</em> eggs, while keeping collected stool samples cool and moist delayed the disintegration of hookworm eggs.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["in-depth", "hookworm", "eggs", "stool"], "article_id"=>115649, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stefanie J. Krauth", "Jean T. Coulibaly", "Stefanie Knopp", "Mahamadou Traoré", "Eliézer K. N'Goran", "Jürg Utzinger"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>56, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/An_In_Depth_Analysis_of_a_Piece_of_Shit_Distribution_of_Schistosoma_mansoni_and_Hookworm_Eggs_in_Human_Stool__/115649", "title"=>"An In-Depth Analysis of a Piece of Shit: Distribution of <em>Schistosoma mansoni</em> and Hookworm Eggs in Human Stool", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 01:34:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/520483"], "description"=>"<p>Mean eggs per gram (EPG) values in surface and center of stool samples, among 102 helminth-positive participants from Azaguié Côte d'Ivoire, in 2010.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eggs", "gram", "stool", "102", "helminth-positive"], "article_id"=>190977, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Stefanie J. Krauth", "Jean T. Coulibaly", "Stefanie Knopp", "Mahamadou Traoré", "Eliézer K. N'Goran", "Jürg Utzinger"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001969.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_eggs_per_gram_EPG_values_in_surface_and_center_of_stool_samples_among_102_helminth_positive_participants_from_Azagui_233_C_244_te_d_Ivoire_in_2010_/190977", "title"=>"Mean eggs per gram (EPG) values in surface and center of stool samples, among 102 helminth-positive participants from Azaguié Côte d'Ivoire, in 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-20 00:16:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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