Current and Future Niche of North and Central American Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Climate Change Scenarios
Publication Date
September 19, 2013
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
David Moo Llanes, Carlos N. Ibarra Cerdeña, Eduardo A. Rebollar Téllez, Sergio Ibáñez Bernal, et al
Volume
7
Issue
9
Pages
e2421
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0002421
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24069478
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3777871
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24069478
Web of Science
000324920800026
Scopus
84884686265
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/current-future-niche-north-central-american-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-climate-change-scenarios-1
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Current and Future Niche of North and Central American Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Climate Change Scenarios", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Moo-Llanes", "scopus_author_id"=>"55636241800"}, {"first_name"=>"Carlos N.", "last_name"=>"Ibarra-Cerdeña", "scopus_author_id"=>"8273515100"}, {"first_name"=>"Eduardo A.", "last_name"=>"Rebollar-Téllez", "scopus_author_id"=>"55995872600"}, {"first_name"=>"Sergio", "last_name"=>"Ibáñez-Bernal", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602708990"}, {"first_name"=>"Camila", "last_name"=>"González", "scopus_author_id"=>"26535887800"}, {"first_name"=>"Janine M.", "last_name"=>"Ramsey", "scopus_author_id"=>"55993651400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84884686265", "pui"=>"369904050", "isbn"=>"1935-2735", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421", "issn"=>"19352735", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84884686265", "pmid"=>"24069478"}, "id"=>"ececc71c-eaab-356b-a659-b7c2deaee187", "abstract"=>"Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated Leishmania vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of Lutzomyia vexator. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. Lutzomyia cruciata is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of Leishmania spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/current-future-niche-north-central-american-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae-climate-change-scenarios-1", "reader_count"=>19, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Mexico"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210327"], "description"=>"<p>A: present, B: 2020, C: 2050, D: 2080. Dots represent sand fly collection sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "niche"], "article_id"=>803955, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sand_fly_richness_for_North_and_Central_America_based_on_ecological_niche_models_ENM_s_/803955", "title"=>"Sand fly richness for North and Central America, based on ecological niche models (ENM's).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210328"], "description"=>"<p>A) A2 scenario, CSIRO model; B) A2 scenario, HadCM3 model; C) B2 scenario, CSIRO model and D) B2 scenario, HadCM3 model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["niche"], "article_id"=>803956, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ecological_niche_models_for_Lutzomyia_shannoni_tropical_/803956", "title"=>"Ecological niche models for <i>Lutzomyia shannoni</i> (tropical).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210329"], "description"=>"<p>A) A2 scenario, CSIRO model; B) A2 scenario, HadCM3 model; C) B2 scenario, CSIRO model and D) B2 scenario, HadCM3 model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["niche"], "article_id"=>803957, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ecological_niche_models_for_Lutzomyia_cruciata_tropical_/803957", "title"=>"Ecological niche models for <i>Lutzomyia cruciata</i> (tropical).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210331"], "description"=>"<p>A) A2 scenario, CSIRO model; B) A2 scenario, HadCM3 model; C) B2 scenario, CSIRO model and D) B2 scenario, HadCM3 model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["niche", "olmeca"], "article_id"=>803959, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ecological_niche_models_for_Lutzomyia_olmeca_olmeca_tropical_/803959", "title"=>"Ecological niche models for <i>Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca</i> (tropical).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210332"], "description"=>"<p>A) A2 scenario, CSIRO model; B) A2 scenario, HadCM3 model; C) B2 scenario, CSIRO model and D) B2 scenario, HadCM3 model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["niche"], "article_id"=>803960, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ecological_niche_models_for_Lutzomyia_vexator_broad_range_/803960", "title"=>"Ecological niche models for <i>Lutzomyia vexator</i> (broad-range).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210333"], "description"=>"<p>Predicted future scenarios using the CSIRO model (left) and HadCM3 model (right). Empty circles = tropical species; solid dot = temperate species; asterisk = broad-range species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pixels", "enm", "2080", "b2"], "article_id"=>803961, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_pixels_for_sand_fly_ENM_from_current_to_2080_in_the_B2_scenario_/803961", "title"=>"Proportion of pixels for sand fly ENM from current to 2080 in the B2 scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210334"], "description"=>"<p>The circle size represents the proportional distribution change, while the thickness is proportional to the overlap percentage between current and 2050 projections (border thickness of 0.5 pt = 25–50%; 1 pt = 51–75%; 2 pt = 76–100%). The direction of the arrow represents the direction of change of the centroid position and its size represents its magnitude. The elevational range changes are represented by the bars (bar up = increase; bar below = decrease). Epidemiologically important species are: 1) <i>Lu. anthophora</i>, 2) <i>Lu. cruciata</i>, 3) <i>Lu. diabolica</i>, 4) <i>Lu. longipalpis</i>, 5) <i>Lu. olmeca olmeca</i>, 6) <i>Lu. ovallesi</i>, 7) <i>Lu. panamensis</i>, 8) <i>Lu. shannoni</i> and 9) <i>Lu. ylephiletor</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["niche", "enm", "centroid", "elevational", "b2"], "article_id"=>803962, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_niche_breadth_ENM_centroid_and_elevational_range_in_B2_scenario_/803962", "title"=>"Changes in niche breadth, ENM centroid and elevational range in B2 scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210335"], "description"=>"<p>A) Map of sandfly species richness (compendium of all ENM models; gray), <i>Leishmania</i> spp. PEN (red), and datapoints for all sand flies and <i>Leishmania</i>; B) Niche identity test for <i>Lu. cruciata</i> and PEN; C) Niche identity test for <i>Lu. olmeca olmeca</i> and PEN. The histograms represents the entire range of <i>Hellinger's based I</i> values from the 100 random-drawn models, while the observed identity is represented by a black arrow.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>803963, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Niche_identity_test_for_sand_fly_species_and_Leishmania_spp_PEN_for_Mexico_/803963", "title"=>"Niche identity test for sand fly species and <i>Leishmania</i> spp. (PEN), for Mexico.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210336"], "description"=>"<p>Ecologically indistinct ENM have a significant value (p<0.05 = *), not significantly more distinct than expected at random (+), or when identity is not significant (p>0.05 = ns).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["niche", "enm"], "article_id"=>803964, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ecological_niche_similarity_between_ENM_of_sand_fly_species_and_Leishmania_spp_/803964", "title"=>"Ecological niche similarity between ENM of sand fly species and <i>Leishmania</i> spp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210337"], "description"=>"<p>Census database from INEGI (<a href=\"http://www.inegi.mx\" target=\"_blank\">www.inegi.mx</a>); population expressed in millions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mexico", "projected", "2050", "vector"], "article_id"=>803965, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rural_population_in_Mexico_with_current_hazard_or_that_projected_for_2050_for_Leishmania_spp_vector_transmission_/803965", "title"=>"Rural population in Mexico with current hazard or that projected for 2050 for <i>Leishmania</i> spp. vector transmission.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210338"], "description"=>"<p><b>ENM maps for each species analyzed in both CSIRO and HadCM3 models and A2 and B2 climate change scenarios.</b></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["points", "enm", "maps", "nca"], "article_id"=>803966, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Eco_region_category_and_data_points_for_ENM_maps_of_NCA_sand_fly_species_/803966", "title"=>"Eco-region category and data points for ENM maps of NCA sand fly species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210339"], "description"=>"<p><b>The HadCM3 model was used for B2 and A2 scenarios.</b></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["2050", "nca", "enm", "centroid", "elevation"], "article_id"=>803967, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_climate_change_to_2050_on_NCA_sand_fly_ENM_breadth_centroid_and_elevation_shift_/803967", "title"=>"Effect of climate change to 2050 on NCA sand fly ENM breadth, centroid and elevation shift.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210340"], "description"=>"<p><b>Proportion change for 2020, 2050, and 2080 is expressed for each time period in comparison with the current value.</b></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "b2", "hadcm3"], "article_id"=>803968, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_species_richness_over_time_in_the_B2_scenario_using_the_HadCM3_model_/803968", "title"=>"Changes in species richness over time in the B2 scenario using the HadCM3 model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210382", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210383", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210384", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210386", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210387", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210388", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210389", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210390", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210391", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210392", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210393", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210394", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210395", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210397", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210398", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210399", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210400", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210401", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210402", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210403", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210404", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210405", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210406", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210407", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210408", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210409", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210410", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210411", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1210412"], "description"=>"<div><p>Ecological niche models are useful tools to infer potential spatial and temporal distributions in vector species and to measure epidemiological risk for infectious diseases such as the Leishmaniases. The ecological niche of 28 North and Central American sand fly species, including those with epidemiological relevance, can be used to analyze the vector's ecology and its association with transmission risk, and plan integrated regional vector surveillance and control programs. In this study, we model the environmental requirements of the principal North and Central American phlebotomine species and analyze three niche characteristics over future climate change scenarios: i) potential change in niche breadth, ii) direction and magnitude of niche centroid shifts, iii) shifts in elevation range. Niche identity between confirmed or incriminated <i>Leishmania</i> vector sand flies in Mexico, and human cases were analyzed. Niche models were constructed using sand fly occurrence datapoints from Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Nine non-correlated bioclimatic and four topographic data layers were used as niche components using GARP in OpenModeller. Both B2 and A2 climate change scenarios were used with two general circulation models for each scenario (CSIRO and HadCM3), for 2020, 2050 and 2080. There was an increase in niche breadth to 2080 in both scenarios for all species with the exception of <i>Lutzomyia vexator</i>. The principal direction of niche centroid displacement was to the northwest (64%), while the elevation range decreased greatest for tropical, and least for broad-range species. <i>Lutzomyia cruciata</i> is the only epidemiologically important species with high niche identity with that of <i>Leishmania</i> spp. in Mexico. Continued landscape modification in future climate change will provide an increased opportunity for the geographic expansion of NCA sand flys' ENM and human exposure to vectors of Leishmaniases.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["niche", "american", "flies"], "article_id"=>804001, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["David Moo-Llanes", "Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña", "Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez", "Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal", "Camila González", "Janine M. Ramsey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s027", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s028", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002421.s029"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Current_and_Future_Niche_of_North_and_Central_American_Sand_Flies_Diptera_Psychodidae_in_Climate_Change_Scenarios_/804001", "title"=>"Current and Future Niche of North and Central American Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Climate Change Scenarios", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-09-19 02:51:02"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"29", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[290, 478, 601, 716, 816, 914, 1016, 1112, 1203, 1285, 1373, 1451, 1516]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Atmospheric science", "average_usage"=>[287, 443, 560, 684, 777, 894, 989, 1065, 1143, 1235, 1335, 1423, 1477]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geography", "average_usage"=>[285, 472, 614, 714, 817, 928, 1028, 1122, 1225, 1327, 1410, 1482, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[284, 475, 603, 722, 826, 928, 1026, 1129, 1225, 1310, 1390, 1468, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecological niches", "average_usage"=>[351, 427]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Habitats", "average_usage"=>[297, 459, 571, 677, 787, 867, 962, 1045, 1121, 1208, 1289, 1372, 1442]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Epidemiology", "average_usage"=>[263, 452, 568, 671, 758, 847, 921, 1023, 1101, 1187, 1264, 1340, 1394]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}]}
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