A Comprehensive Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka Six Years after Cessation of Mass Drug Administration
Publication Date
November 13, 2014
Journal
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Authors
Ramakrishna U. Rao, Kumara C. Nagodavithana, Sandhya D. Samarasekera, Asha D. Wijegunawardana, et al
Volume
8
Issue
11
Pages
e3281
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0003281
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25393404
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4230885
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25393404
Web of Science
000345514000022
Scopus
84920381004
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/comprehensive-assessment-lymphatic-filariasis-sri-lanka-six-years-after-cessation-mass-drug-administ
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A Comprehensive Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka Six Years after Cessation of Mass Drug Administration", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ramakrishna U.", "last_name"=>"Rao", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403068644"}, {"first_name"=>"Kumara C.", "last_name"=>"Nagodavithana", "scopus_author_id"=>"50861993100"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandhya D.", "last_name"=>"Samarasekera", "scopus_author_id"=>"53983009500"}, {"first_name"=>"Asha D.", "last_name"=>"Wijegunawardana", "scopus_author_id"=>"55901594300"}, {"first_name"=>"Welmillage D Y", "last_name"=>"Premakumara", "scopus_author_id"=>"56469821100"}, {"first_name"=>"Samudrika N.", "last_name"=>"Perera", "scopus_author_id"=>"56468866400"}, {"first_name"=>"Sunil", "last_name"=>"Settinayake", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506048293"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Phillip", "last_name"=>"Miller", "scopus_author_id"=>"56120236500"}, {"first_name"=>"Gary J.", "last_name"=>"Weil", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007028568"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1935-2735", "pui"=>"601112731", "issn"=>"19352735", "pmid"=>"25393404", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281", "sgr"=>"84920381004", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84920381004"}, "id"=>"45ccc292-f7fa-37cf-8783-1da6cf002541", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts. All EUs easily satisfied WHO criteria for stopping MDA. Comprehensive surveillance was performed in 19 Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas (subdistrict health administrative units). The surveillance package included cross-sectional community surveys for microfilaremia (Mf) and circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA), school surveys for CFA and anti-filarial antibodies, and collection of Culex mosquitoes with gravid traps for detection of filarial DNA (molecular xenomonitoring, MX). Provisional target rates for interruption of LF transmission were community CFA <2%, antibody in school children <2%, and filarial DNA in mosquitoes <0.25%. Community Mf and CFA prevalence rates ranged from 0-0.9% and 0-3.4%, respectively. Infection rates were significantly higher in males and lower in people who denied prior treatment. Antibody rates in school children exceeded 2% in 10 study sites; the area that had the highest community and school CFA rates also had the highest school antibody rate (6.9%). Filarial DNA rates in mosquitoes exceeded 0.25% in 10 PHI areas. CONCLUSIONS Comprehensive surveillance is feasible for some national filariasis elimination programs. Low-level persistence of LF was present in all study sites; several sites failed to meet provisional endpoint criteria for LF elimination, and follow-up testing will be needed in these areas. TAS was not sensitive for detecting low-level persistence of filariasis in Sri Lanka. We recommend use of antibody and MX testing as tools to complement TAS for post-MDA surveillance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comprehensive-assessment-lymphatic-filariasis-sri-lanka-six-years-after-cessation-mass-drug-administ", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791633"], "description"=>"a<p>Sentinel sites (PHI) C3 and C4 were in the city of Colombo.</p>b<p>Sentinel site G3 is a Public Health Field Officer area (PHFO).</p><p>Background information for Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas selected for comprehensive filariasis surveillance and demographic information for subjects enrolled in community studies conducted in these areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239372, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Background_information_for_Public_Health_Inspector_PHI_areas_selected_for_comprehensive_filariasis_surveillance_and_demographic_information_for_subjects_enrolled_in_community_studies_conducted_in_these_areas_/1239372", "title"=>"Background information for Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas selected for comprehensive filariasis surveillance and demographic information for subjects enrolled in community studies conducted in these areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791629"], "description"=>"<p>Data shown are rates (% with 95% confidence limits as vertical lines). The dotted line in the top panel and the lower dotted lines in the two lower panels show the old provisional targets for interruption of transmission. The upper dotted lines in the two lower panels are recommended revised targets for the upper confidence limits for antibody rates in first and second grade primary school children and for filarial DNA rates in mosquitoes, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239368, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphic_summary_of_comprehensive_filariasis_surveillance_data_for_Public_Health_Inspector_areas_in_Sri_Lanka_/1239368", "title"=>"Graphic summary of comprehensive filariasis surveillance data for Public Health Inspector areas in Sri Lanka.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791638"], "description"=>"a<p>The critical cutoff value for assessing interruption of transmission was 18 in all EUs.</p>b<p>The 8 endemic districts were MDA implementation units.</p>c<p>BinaxNOW Filariasis tests were used for detection of filarial antigenemia. Data shown are the number of positive tests (% positive and 95% CI).</p><p>Transmission assessment survey (TAS<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281#nt110\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup>) results from 11 evaluation units (EUs) in 8 districts<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281#nt111\" target=\"_blank\">b</a></sup> in in Sri Lanka.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239377, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transmission_assessment_survey_TAS_a_results_from_11_evaluation_units_EUs_in_8_districts_b_in_in_Sri_Lanka_/1239377", "title"=>"Transmission assessment survey (TAS<sup>a</sup>) results from 11 evaluation units (EUs) in 8 districts<sup>b</sup> in in Sri Lanka.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791636"], "description"=>"a<p>Circulating filarial antigen (CFA) results from 14 public health inspector areas (PHIs) with one or more CFA positives were included in this analysis.</p>b<p>Data shown are CFA prevalence rates (95% CI).</p><p>Filariasis infection parameters by age and gender in Public Health Inspector<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281#nt106\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup> areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239375, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Filariasis_infection_parameters_by_age_and_gender_in_Public_Health_Inspector_a_areas_/1239375", "title"=>"Filariasis infection parameters by age and gender in Public Health Inspector<sup>a</sup> areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791637"], "description"=>"a<p>Results from all 19 public health inspector (PHI) areas that were surveyed.</p>b<p>This analysis was restricted to results from 14 PHI areas where one or more persons tested had a positive filarial antigen test.</p><p>Multivariable logistic regression of risk factors for filarial antigenemia in community survey data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239376, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multivariable_logistic_regression_of_risk_factors_for_filarial_antigenemia_in_community_survey_data_/1239376", "title"=>"Multivariable logistic regression of risk factors for filarial antigenemia in community survey data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791635"], "description"=>"a<p>Surveyed rates for ingestion of antifilarial medications during the national mass drug administration (MDA) program 2002–06.</p>b<p>Prevalence rates are mean values (95% CI) by PHI. Results are shown as pass (regular font), borderline (<i>italics</i>) or fail (<b>bold</b>) based on provisional endpoint criteria described in the <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281#s1\" target=\"_blank\">Introduction</a>.</p>c<p>Study sites C3 and C4 were in the city of Colombo.</p><p>Summary of filariasis parameters from community (Comm) and school surveys conducted in public health inspector (PHI) areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239374, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_filariasis_parameters_from_community_Comm_and_school_surveys_conducted_in_public_health_inspector_PHI_areas_/1239374", "title"=>"Summary of filariasis parameters from community (Comm) and school surveys conducted in public health inspector (PHI) areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791632"], "description"=>"<p>Panel A. Blue waypoints indicate households (HH) where all tested residents had negative filarial antigen tests; waypoints in red (CFA positivity) or yellow (microfilaremia and CFA positivity) indicate houses with at least one infected subject. Panel B shows molecular xenomonitoring results. Trap sites with no mosquito pools positive for filarial DNA are shown in blue, and traps with one or more positive mosquito pools are shown in red. Filarial DNA was detected in mosquitoes collected in 60% of the traps in this PHI.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239371, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_households_and_mosquito_collection_sites_tested_for_filariasis_in_Unawatuna_PHI_area_in_Galle_district_/1239371", "title"=>"Distribution of households and mosquito collection sites tested for filariasis in Unawatuna PHI area in Galle district.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791643", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791644", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791645", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791646"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA.</p><p>Methodology and Principal Findings</p><p>Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts. All EUs easily satisfied WHO criteria for stopping MDA. Comprehensive surveillance was performed in 19 Public Health Inspector (PHI) areas (subdistrict health administrative units). The surveillance package included cross-sectional community surveys for microfilaremia (Mf) and circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA), school surveys for CFA and anti-filarial antibodies, and collection of <i>Culex</i> mosquitoes with gravid traps for detection of filarial DNA (molecular xenomonitoring, MX). Provisional target rates for interruption of LF transmission were community CFA <2%, antibody in school children <2%, and filarial DNA in mosquitoes <0.25%. Community Mf and CFA prevalence rates ranged from 0–0.9% and 0–3.4%, respectively. Infection rates were significantly higher in males and lower in people who denied prior treatment. Antibody rates in school children exceeded 2% in 10 study sites; the area that had the highest community and school CFA rates also had the highest school antibody rate (6.9%). Filarial DNA rates in mosquitoes exceeded 0.25% in 10 PHI areas.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Comprehensive surveillance is feasible for some national filariasis elimination programs. Low-level persistence of LF was present in all study sites; several sites failed to meet provisional endpoint criteria for LF elimination, and follow-up testing will be needed in these areas. TAS was not sensitive for detecting low-level persistence of filariasis in Sri Lanka. We recommend use of antibody and MX testing as tools to complement TAS for post-MDA surveillance.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239382, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Comprehensive_Assessment_of_Lymphatic_Filariasis_in_Sri_Lanka_Six_Years_after_Cessation_of_Mass_Drug_Administration_/1239382", "title"=>"A Comprehensive Assessment of Lymphatic Filariasis in Sri Lanka Six Years after Cessation of Mass Drug Administration", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791640"], "description"=>"a<p>Peliyagodawatta is a Public Health Field Officer area in Gampaha district.</p>b<p>Results shown are % positive (95% CI). Filarial DNA rates shown are maximum likelihood estimates (with 95% CI).</p>c<p><i>P</i> values are based on χ<sup>2</sup>. NS, not significant.</p>d<p>Community microfilaremia (Mf) and circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA) rates are for ages ≥10 years. Mf rates are based on night blood smear results from all subjects in 2008 and from CFA positives only in 2011.</p><p>Comparison of filarial infection parameters in Peliyagodawatta<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281#nt116\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup> in 2008 and 2011.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239379, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_filarial_infection_parameters_in_Peliyagodawatta_a_in_2008_and_2011_/1239379", "title"=>"Comparison of filarial infection parameters in Peliyagodawatta<sup>a</sup> in 2008 and 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1791639"], "description"=>"a<p>Sentinel sites (PHIs) C3 and C4 were located in the city of Colombo. Sentinel site G3 is a PHFO area.</p>b<p>Each pool included 20 mosquitoes (blood fed, gravid and semigravid).</p>c<p>Filarial DNA was detected by qPCR. Rates of filarial DNA in mosquitoes (maximum likelihood and 95% CI) were estimated using PoolScreen2. Results are shown as pass (regular font), borderline (<i>italics</i>) or fail (<b>bold</b>) based on provisional endpoint criteria described in the <a href=\"http://www.plosntds.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281#s1\" target=\"_blank\">Introduction</a>.</p><p>Filarial DNA rates in Sri Lankan <i>Culex quinquefasciatus</i> mosquitoes by Public Health Inspector area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CFA prevalence rates", "10 study sites", "tas", "Sri Lanka 6 years", "filarial DNA", "19 Public Health Inspector", "eu", "antibody", "mx", "11 evaluation units", "10 PHI areas.ConclusionsComprehensive surveillance", "mda", "filariasis elimination programs", "Principal FindingsTransmission assessment surveys", "Mass Drug Administration", "lf", "school CFA rates", "Provisional target rates", "school children", "Sri Lanka"], "article_id"=>1239378, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramakrishna U. Rao", "Kumara C. Nagodavithana", "Sandhya D. Samarasekera", "Asha D. Wijegunawardana", "Welmillage D. Y. Premakumara", "Samudrika N. Perera", "Sunil Settinayake", "J. Phillip Miller", "Gary J. Weil"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003281.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Filarial_DNA_rates_in_Sri_Lankan_Culex_quinquefasciatus_mosquitoes_by_Public_Health_Inspector_area_/1239378", "title"=>"Filarial DNA rates in Sri Lankan <i>Culex quinquefasciatus</i> mosquitoes by Public Health Inspector area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-13 02:53:47"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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