Depauperate Avifauna in Plantations Compared to Forests and Exurban Areas
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{"title"=>"Depauperate avifauna in plantations compared to forests and exurban areas", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David G.", "last_name"=>"Haskell"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan P.", "last_name"=>"Evans"}, {"first_name"=>"Neil W.", "last_name"=>"Pelkey"}], "year"=>2006, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0000063", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"54949089582", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"17183694", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-54949089582"}, "id"=>"307f4a60-b53c-3a30-a697-213ab9719f06", "abstract"=>"Native forests are shrinking worldwide, causing a loss of biological diversity. Our ability to prioritize forest conservation actions is hampered by a lack of information about the relative impacts of different types of forest loss on biodiversity. In particular, we lack rigorous comparisons of the effects of clearing forests for tree plantations and for human settlements, two leading causes of deforestation worldwide. We compared avian diversity in forests, plantations and exurban areas on the Cumberland Plateau, USA, an area of global importance for biodiversity. By combining field surveys with digital habitat databases, and then analyzing diversity at multiple scales, we found that plantations had lower diversity and fewer conservation priority species than did other habitats. Exurban areas had higher diversity than did native forests, but native forests outscored exurban areas for some measures of conservation priority. Overall therefore, pine plantations had impoverished avian communities relative to both native forests and to exurban areas. Thus, reports on the status of forests give misleading signals about biological diversity when they include plantations in their estimates of forest cover but exclude forested areas in which humans live. Likewise, forest conservation programs should downgrade incentives for plantations and should include settled areas within their purview.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/depauperate-avifauna-plantations-compared-forests-exurban-areas", "reader_count"=>42, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Researcher"=>12, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Professor"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Researcher"=>12, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Professor"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Portugal"=>1, "France"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/470132", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/470154", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/470174", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/470187", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/470200", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/470224"], "description"=>"<div><p>Native forests are shrinking worldwide, causing a loss of biological diversity. Our ability to prioritize forest conservation actions is hampered by a lack of information about the relative impacts of different types of forest loss on biodiversity. In particular, we lack rigorous comparisons of the effects of clearing forests for tree plantations and for human settlements, two leading causes of deforestation worldwide. We compared avian diversity in forests, plantations and exurban areas on the Cumberland Plateau, USA, an area of global importance for biodiversity. By combining field surveys with digital habitat databases, and then analyzing diversity at multiple scales, we found that plantations had lower diversity and fewer conservation priority species than did other habitats. Exurban areas had higher diversity than did native forests, but native forests outscored exurban areas for some measures of conservation priority. Overall therefore, pine plantations had impoverished avian communities relative to both native forests and to exurban areas. Thus, reports on the status of forests give misleading signals about biological diversity when they include plantations in their estimates of forest cover but exclude forested areas in which humans live. Likewise, forest conservation programs should downgrade incentives for plantations and should include settled areas within their purview.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depauperate", "avifauna", "plantations", "compared", "forests", "exurban", "areas"], "article_id"=>152659, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David G. Haskell", "Jonathan P. Evans", "Neil W. Pelkey"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>15, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Depauperate_Avifauna_in_Plantations_Compared_to_Forests_and_Exurban_Areas/152659", "title"=>"Depauperate Avifauna in Plantations Compared to Forests and Exurban Areas", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2006-12-20 00:44:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/954530"], "description"=>"<div><p>Only statistically significant correlations are shown (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063#pone-0000063-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> for listing of all correlations, regardless of significance).</p>\n <p>All buffers were calculated around the locations of point counts in exurban areas.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pearson", "correlations", "metrics"], "article_id"=>624821, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David G. Haskell", "Jonathan P. Evans", "Neil W. Pelkey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_Pearson_correlations_between_landscape_metrics_and_bird_community_characteristics_/624821", "title"=>"Summary of Pearson correlations between landscape metrics and bird community characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:59:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/954393"], "description"=>"<div><p>Filled bars show means and standard errors of indices of abundance calculated by counting all birds within 50 m of each count center.</p>\n <p>Habitat classes with the same letter are not significantly different from one another in a Tukey HSD multiple means comparison calculated using this data.</p>\n <p>Open bars show estimated abundance with 95% confidence intervals from DISTANCE software using all birds detected up to 150 m.</p>\n <p>Numbers above bars show the percentage difference between the DISTANCE estimate and the estimate made by counting birds within 50 m of count centers.</p>\n <p>(E = early pine plantation, M = mid-aged pine plantation, L = late pine plantation, N = native forest, X = Exurban areas, T = thinned native forest.)</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["abundance"], "article_id"=>624695, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David G. Haskell", "Jonathan P. Evans", "Neil W. Pelkey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Indices_of_bird_abundance_for_six_habitat_classes_/624695", "title"=>"Indices of bird abundance for six habitat classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:58:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/954346"], "description"=>"<div><p>Evenness is shown by the probability of interspecific encounter (PIE, shown by thick lines; thin lines show 95% confidence intervals).</p>\n <p>PIE controls for both sampling effort and bird density, and uses repeated re-sampling of the data to calculate the probability that the next bird sampled will be of a different species.</p>\n <p>Therefore, high PIE values indicate high species evenness.</p>\n <p>See “caveats” section of Discussion for an analysis of how detectability differences might influence the curves in this figure.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evenness"], "article_id"=>624652, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David G. Haskell", "Jonathan P. Evans", "Neil W. Pelkey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_evenness_in_each_habitat_class_/624652", "title"=>"Species evenness in each habitat class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:58:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/954482"], "description"=>"<div><p>(a) Numbers of species nesting in different nest site types in each habitat class, (b) Numbers of species with different migratory patterns in each habitat class.</p>\n <p>(E = early pine plantation, M = mid-aged pine plantation, L = late pine plantation, N = native forest, X = Exurban areas, T = thinned native forest.)</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["birds"], "article_id"=>624779, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David G. Haskell", "Jonathan P. Evans", "Neil W. Pelkey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Life_history_characteristics_of_birds_in_each_habitat_class_/624779", "title"=>"Life history characteristics of birds in each habitat class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:59:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/954292"], "description"=>"<div><p>Richness is shown by rarefaction curves which describe how the number of species changes with the number of individuals sampled, thus controlling for both sampling effort and bird density.</p>\n <p>Thick lines indicate mean richness and thin lines indicate 95% confidence intervals.</p>\n <p>Note that the “late pine” line hugs the first part of the “mid pine” line, ending at two hundred individuals and twenty species.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness"], "article_id"=>624588, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David G. Haskell", "Jonathan P. Evans", "Neil W. Pelkey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_richness_in_each_habitat_class_/624588", "title"=>"Species richness in each habitat class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:57:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/954439"], "description"=>"<div><p>Each point represents the position in ordination space of the bird community detected at one transect.</p>\n <p>The two axes show the relative position of each transect in the multi-dimensional space defined by the species found on each transect.</p>\n <p>Thus transects with similar bird communities cluster together on the graph.</p>\n <p>The first axis (DCA 1) is the one along which most of the variation in the ordination space is arranged (eigenvalue = 0.56), the second axis (DCA 2) is the second most important axis through the ordination space (eigenvalue = 0.44).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["correspondence", "communities", "calculated"], "article_id"=>624733, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["David G. Haskell", "Jonathan P. Evans", "Neil W. Pelkey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detrended_correspondence_analysis_of_bird_communities_calculated_at_the_scale_of_transects_/624733", "title"=>"Detrended correspondence analysis of bird communities calculated at the scale of transects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 12:58:52"}

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Relative Metric

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