A Reversible Color Polyphenism in American Peppered Moth (Biston betularia cognataria) Caterpillars
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{"title"=>"A reversible color polyphenism in american peppered moth (Biston betularia cognataria) caterpillars", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mohamed A F", "last_name"=>"Noor", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102422867"}, {"first_name"=>"Robin S.", "last_name"=>"Parnell", "scopus_author_id"=>"24831984800"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruce S.", "last_name"=>"Grant", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201956372"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0003142", "pui"=>"352385259", "pmid"=>"18769543", "sgr"=>"52149109780", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-52149109780", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"77840e9d-b599-3866-abb2-70fd5f90039b", "abstract"=>"Insect body color polyphenisms enhance survival by producing crypsis in diverse backgrounds. While color polyphenisms are often indirectly induced by temperature, rearing density, or diet, insects can benefit from immediate crypsis if they evolve polyphenisms directly induced by exposure to the background color, hence immediately deriving protection from predation. Here, we examine such a directly induced color polyphenism in caterpillars of the geometrid peppered moth (Biston betularia). This larval color polyphenism is unrelated to the genetic polymorphism for melanic phenotypes in adult moths. B. betularia caterpillars are generalist feeders and develop body colors that closely match the brown or green twigs of their host plant. We expand on previous studies examining the proximal cues that stimulate color development. Under controlled rearing conditions, we manipulated diets and background reflectance, using both natural and artificial twigs, and show that visual experience has a much stronger effect than does diet in promoting precise color matching. Their induced body color was not a simple response to reflectance or light intensity but instead specifically matched the wavelength of light to which they were exposed. We also show that the potential to change color is retained until the final (sixth) larval instar. Given their broad host range, this directly induced color polyphenism likely provides the caterpillars with strong protection from bird predation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/reversible-color-polyphenism-american-peppered-moth-biston-betularia-cognataria-caterpillars", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922160"], "description"=>"<p>Scoring for A) was as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0003142#pone-0003142-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>, whereas B) represented shading from pale grey to black.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caterpillars", "fed", "leaves", "branches", "tub"], "article_id"=>592606, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Mohamed A. F. Noor", "Robin S. Parnell", "Bruce S. Grant"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003142.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_color_distribution_among_caterpillars_fed_apple_leaves_A_on_brown_artificial_branches_in_a_brown_tub_or_green_artificial_branches_in_a_yellow_tub_or_B_in_white_vs_black_backgrounds_/592606", "title"=>"Comparison of color distribution among caterpillars fed apple leaves A) on brown artificial branches in a brown tub or green artificial branches in a yellow tub, or B) in white vs. black backgrounds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-09-04 00:43:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922257"], "description"=>"<p>Scoring was based on 1 = green, 2 = green intermediate, 3 = brown intermediate, 4 = dark brown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caterpillars", "fed", "willow", "branches", "leaves", "birch", "crab-apple"], "article_id"=>592695, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Mohamed A. F. Noor", "Robin S. Parnell", "Bruce S. Grant"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003142.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_color_distribution_among_caterpillars_fed_willow_branches_with_intact_leaves_and_caterpillars_fed_birch_branches_with_intact_leaves_or_crab_apple_leaves_on_birch_vs_willow_branches_/592695", "title"=>"Comparison of color distribution among caterpillars fed willow branches with intact leaves and caterpillars fed birch branches with intact leaves, or crab-apple leaves on birch vs. willow branches.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-09-04 00:44:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/455445"], "description"=>"<div><p>Insect body color polyphenisms enhance survival by producing crypsis in diverse backgrounds. While color polyphenisms are often indirectly induced by temperature, rearing density, or diet, insects can benefit from immediate crypsis if they evolve polyphenisms directly induced by exposure to the background color, hence immediately deriving protection from predation. Here, we examine such a directly induced color polyphenism in caterpillars of the geometrid peppered moth (<em>Biston betularia</em>). This larval color polyphenism is unrelated to the genetic polymorphism for melanic phenotypes in adult moths. <em>B. betularia</em> caterpillars are generalist feeders and develop body colors that closely match the brown or green twigs of their host plant. We expand on previous studies examining the proximal cues that stimulate color development. Under controlled rearing conditions, we manipulated diets and background reflectance, using both natural and artificial twigs, and show that visual experience has a much stronger effect than does diet in promoting precise color matching. Their induced body color was not a simple response to reflectance or light intensity but instead specifically matched the wavelength of light to which they were exposed. We also show that the potential to change color is retained until the final (sixth) larval instar. Given their broad host range, this directly induced color polyphenism likely provides the caterpillars with strong protection from bird predation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reversible", "polyphenism", "american", "peppered", "moth", "betularia", "caterpillars"], "article_id"=>149706, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Mohamed A. F. Noor", "Robin S. Parnell", "Bruce S. Grant"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003142", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Reversible_Color_Polyphenism_in_American_Peppered_Moth_Biston_betularia_cognataria_Caterpillars/149706", "title"=>"A Reversible Color Polyphenism in American Peppered Moth (<em>Biston betularia cognataria</em>) Caterpillars", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-09-04 02:41:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922210"], "description"=>"<p>Scoring was as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0003142#pone-0003142-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caterpillars", "fed", "willow", "birch", "leaves", "raised", "containers", "shredded", "suspended", "polyethylene"], "article_id"=>592645, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Mohamed A. F. Noor", "Robin S. Parnell", "Bruce S. Grant"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003142.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_color_distribution_among_caterpillars_fed_willow_vs_birch_leaves_A_raised_in_total_darkness_or_B_raised_in_clear_containers_but_fed_shredded_leaves_suspended_on_clear_polyethylene_nets_/592645", "title"=>"Comparison of color distribution among caterpillars fed willow vs. birch leaves A) raised in total darkness, or B) raised in clear containers but fed shredded leaves suspended on clear polyethylene nets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-09-04 00:44:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922123"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of color distribution among caterpillars fed willow vs. birch leaves on intact branches either for their entire life or transferred at a particular larval instar.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caterpillars", "fed", "willow", "birch", "leaves", "branches", "larval"], "article_id"=>592568, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Mohamed A. F. Noor", "Robin S. Parnell", "Bruce S. Grant"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003142.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_color_distribution_among_caterpillars_fed_willow_vs_birch_leaves_on_intact_branches_either_for_their_entire_life_or_transferred_at_a_particular_larval_instar_/592568", "title"=>"Comparison of color distribution among caterpillars fed willow vs. birch leaves on intact branches either for their entire life or transferred at a particular larval instar.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-09-04 00:42:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/922064"], "description"=>"<p>Caterpillar head sizes for instars 1–6.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sizes", "instars"], "article_id"=>592517, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Mohamed A. F. Noor", "Robin S. Parnell", "Bruce S. Grant"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003142.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Caterpillar_head_sizes_for_instars_1_8211_6_/592517", "title"=>"Caterpillar head sizes for instars 1–6.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-09-04 00:41:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/921966"], "description"=>"<p><i>Biston betularia</i> caterpillars on birch (left) and willow (right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caterpillars", "birch", "willow"], "article_id"=>592415, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology"], "users"=>["Mohamed A. F. Noor", "Robin S. Parnell", "Bruce S. Grant"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003142.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biston_betularia_caterpillars_on_birch_left_and_willow_right_/592415", "title"=>"<i>Biston betularia</i> caterpillars on birch (left) and willow (right).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-09-04 00:40:15"}

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Relative Metric

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