The Fastest Flights in Nature: High-Speed Spore Discharge Mechanisms among Fungi
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{"title"=>"The fastest flights in nature: High-speed spore discharge mechanisms among fungi", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Levi", "last_name"=>"Yafetto", "scopus_author_id"=>"24923552000"}, {"first_name"=>"Loran", "last_name"=>"Carroll", "scopus_author_id"=>"24922804700"}, {"first_name"=>"Yunluan", "last_name"=>"Cui", "scopus_author_id"=>"24922640200"}, {"first_name"=>"Diana J.", "last_name"=>"Davis", "scopus_author_id"=>"36986098300"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark W F", "last_name"=>"Fischer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402921811"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew C.", "last_name"=>"Henterly", "scopus_author_id"=>"24922738600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jordan D.", "last_name"=>"Kessler", "scopus_author_id"=>"24923542400"}, {"first_name"=>"Hayley A.", "last_name"=>"Kilroy", "scopus_author_id"=>"24923491300"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacob B.", "last_name"=>"Shidler", "scopus_author_id"=>"24923871500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jessica L.", "last_name"=>"Stolze-Rybczynski", "scopus_author_id"=>"24923605600"}, {"first_name"=>"Zachary", "last_name"=>"Sugawara", "scopus_author_id"=>"24923699000"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas P.", "last_name"=>"Money", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003433898"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-52449132861", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0003237", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"18797504", "pui"=>"352410301", "sgr"=>"52449132861"}, "id"=>"41f2e804-8f9f-3842-98b5-f9018dc6b743", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: A variety of spore discharge processes have evolved among the fungi. Those with the longest ranges are powered by hydrostatic pressure and include \"squirt guns\" that are most common in the Ascomycota and Zygomycota. In these fungi, fluid-filled stalks that support single spores or spore-filled sporangia, or cells called asci that contain multiple spores, are pressurized by osmosis. Because spores are discharged at such high speeds, most of the information on launch processes from previous studies has been inferred from mathematical models and is subject to a number of errors.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have used ultra-high-speed video cameras running at maximum frame rates of 250,000 fps to analyze the entire launch process in four species of fungi that grow on the dung of herbivores. For the first time we have direct measurements of launch speeds and empirical estimates of acceleration in these fungi. Launch speeds ranged from 2 to 25 m s(-1) and corresponding accelerations of 20,000 to 180,000 g propelled spores over distances of up to 2.5 meters. In addition, quantitative spectroscopic methods were used to identify the organic and inorganic osmolytes responsible for generating the turgor pressures that drive spore discharge.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new video data allowed us to test different models for the effect of viscous drag and identify errors in the previous approaches to modeling spore motion. The spectroscopic data show that high speed spore discharge mechanisms in fungi are powered by the same levels of turgor pressure that are characteristic of fungal hyphae and do not require any special mechanisms of osmolyte accumulation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fastest-flights-nature-highspeed-spore-discharge-mechanisms-among-fungi", "reader_count"=>84, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>8, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>7}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>9, "Philippines"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "South Africa"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/921014"], "description"=>"<p>Trajectories of spores and sporangia of <i>Ascobolus immersus</i> (<i>A.i.</i>, blue), <i>Podospora anserina</i> (<i>P.a.</i>, red), <i>Basidiobolus ranarum</i> (<i>B.r.</i>, green), and <i>Pilobolus kleinii</i> (<i>P.k.</i>, blue in inset). Points indicate projectile positions at 10 ms intervals. The truncated trajectories of <i>A. immersus</i>, <i>P. anserina</i>, and <i>B. ranarum</i> are indicative of the dominance of viscous forces over inertial forces in the motional regimes for these launches. Inertia is more significant for the flight of the larger sporangia of <i>P. kleinii</i>. Launch angles of 40° (<i>A.i.</i>), 30° (<i>P.a., P.k.</i>), and 20° (<i>B.r.</i>), were chosen to separate the trajectories from one another but also reflect the phototropic orientation of these asci, sporangiophores, and conidiophores in nature.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trajectories", "spores", "sporangia", "fungi"], "article_id"=>591445, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Levi Yafetto", "Loran Carroll", "Yunluan Cui", "Diana J. Davis", "Mark W. F. Fischer", "Andrew C. Henterly", "Jordan D. Kessler", "Hayley A. Kilroy", "Jacob B. Shidler", "Jessica L. Stolze-Rybczynski", "Zachary Sugawara", "Nicholas P. Money"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003237.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_trajectories_of_spores_and_sporangia_of_four_fungi_based_on_launch_data_obtained_by_high_speed_video_microscopy_/591445", "title"=>"Predicted trajectories of spores and sporangia of four fungi based on launch data obtained by high speed video microscopy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-09-17 00:24:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/921117"], "description"=>"*<p>Maximum range measurements by authors with exception of <i>P. klenii</i> data published by Buller <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0003237#pone.0003237-Buller1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>.</p>**<p>Pressure estimates (for measured range of launch speeds) were obtained by calculating the force needed to cause the observed projectile accelerations via Newton's second law and the area over which that force was applied.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spore", "sporangium", "discharge", "coprophilous", "fungi", "viscous"], "article_id"=>591550, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Levi Yafetto", "Loran Carroll", "Yunluan Cui", "Diana J. Davis", "Mark W. F. Fischer", "Andrew C. Henterly", "Jordan D. Kessler", "Hayley A. Kilroy", "Jacob B. Shidler", "Jessica L. Stolze-Rybczynski", "Zachary Sugawara", "Nicholas P. Money"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003237.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ballistics_of_spore_and_sporangium_discharge_in_four_coprophilous_fungi_based_upon_high_speed_video_analyses_and_different_models_for_the_effects_of_viscous_drag_on_particle_flight_/591550", "title"=>"Ballistics of spore and sporangium discharge in four coprophilous fungi based upon high speed video analyses and different models for the effects of viscous drag on particle flight.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-09-17 00:25:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454469", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454522", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454569", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454644"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>A variety of spore discharge processes have evolved among the fungi. Those with the longest ranges are powered by hydrostatic pressure and include “squirt guns” that are most common in the Ascomycota and Zygomycota. In these fungi, fluid-filled stalks that support single spores or spore-filled sporangia, or cells called asci that contain multiple spores, are pressurized by osmosis. Because spores are discharged at such high speeds, most of the information on launch processes from previous studies has been inferred from mathematical models and is subject to a number of errors.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>In this study, we have used ultra-high-speed video cameras running at maximum frame rates of 250,000 fps to analyze the entire launch process in four species of fungi that grow on the dung of herbivores. For the first time we have direct measurements of launch speeds and empirical estimates of acceleration in these fungi. Launch speeds ranged from 2 to 25 m s<sup>−1</sup> and corresponding accelerations of 20,000 to 180,000 <em>g</em> propelled spores over distances of up to 2.5 meters. In addition, quantitative spectroscopic methods were used to identify the organic and inorganic osmolytes responsible for generating the turgor pressures that drive spore discharge.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>The new video data allowed us to test different models for the effect of viscous drag and identify errors in the previous approaches to modeling spore motion. The spectroscopic data show that high speed spore discharge mechanisms in fungi are powered by the same levels of turgor pressure that are characteristic of fungal hyphae and do not require any special mechanisms of osmolyte accumulation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fastest", "flights", "high-speed", "spore", "discharge", "mechanisms", "fungi"], "article_id"=>149537, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Levi Yafetto", "Loran Carroll", "Yunluan Cui", "Diana J. Davis", "Mark W. F. Fischer", "Andrew C. Henterly", "Jordan D. Kessler", "Hayley A. Kilroy", "Jacob B. Shidler", "Jessica L. Stolze-Rybczynski", "Zachary Sugawara", "Nicholas P. Money"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003237.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003237.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003237.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003237.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>54, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Fastest_Flights_in_Nature_High_Speed_Spore_Discharge_Mechanisms_among_Fungi/149537", "title"=>"The Fastest Flights in Nature: High-Speed Spore Discharge Mechanisms among Fungi", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-09-17 02:38:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/920939"], "description"=>"<p>a, <i>Ascobolus immersus</i>, with 8 ascospores discharged from ascus tip, 60 µs into the launch. b, <i>Podospora anserina</i>, with 4 ascospores harnessed by mucilaginous appendages, 96 µs after release from apex of fruiting body at left of frame. c, <i>Pilobolus kleinii</i>, sporangium with sap trailing behind, 0.8 ms after beginning of discharge. Undischarged sporangium at top of frame. d, <i>Basidiobolus ranarum</i>, single spore carrying portion of dehisced conidiophore, 24 µs into the launch. Scale bars, a, b, d, 50 µm, c, 1 mm. Frame rates a, 100,000 fps, b, 250,000 fps, c, 50,000 fps, d, 210,000 fps.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["frames", "recordings", "spore", "discharge", "coprophilous"], "article_id"=>591377, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Microbiology"], "users"=>["Levi Yafetto", "Loran Carroll", "Yunluan Cui", "Diana J. Davis", "Mark W. F. Fischer", "Andrew C. Henterly", "Jordan D. Kessler", "Hayley A. Kilroy", "Jacob B. Shidler", "Jessica L. Stolze-Rybczynski", "Zachary Sugawara", "Nicholas P. Money"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003237.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Single_frames_from_high_speed_video_recordings_of_spore_discharge_in_four_coprophilous_fungi_/591377", "title"=>"Single frames from high speed video recordings of spore discharge in four coprophilous fungi.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-09-17 00:22:57"}

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Relative Metric

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