Dynamics of Alliance Formation and the Egalitarian Revolution
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{"title"=>"Dynamics of alliance formation and the egalitarian revolution", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sergey", "last_name"=>"Gavrilets", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003653401"}, {"first_name"=>"Edgar A.", "last_name"=>"Duenez-Guzman", "scopus_author_id"=>"25221106200"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael D.", "last_name"=>"Vose", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603846213"}], "year"=>2008, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"352463092", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"18827928", "arxiv"=>"0809.0332", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0003293", "sgr"=>"53249092097", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-53249092097"}, "id"=>"ed51c6b4-13f2-3822-afd5-9897bfeaccb7", "abstract"=>"Background\\nArguably the most influential force in human history is the formation of social coalitions and alliances (i.e., long-lasting coalitions) and their impact on individual power. Understanding the dynamics of alliance formation and its consequences for biological, social, and cultural evolution is a formidable theoretical challenge. In most great ape species, coalitions occur at individual and group levels and among both kin and non-kin. Nonetheless, ape societies remain essentially hierarchical, and coalitions rarely weaken social inequality. In contrast, human hunter-gatherers show a remarkable tendency to egalitarianism, and human coalitions and alliances occur not only among individuals and groups, but also among groups of groups. These observations suggest that the evolutionary dynamics of human coalitions can only be understood in the context of social networks and cognitive evolution.\\n\\nMethodology/Principal Findings\\nHere, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of networks of allies resulting from within-group competition for status or mates between individuals utilizing dyadic information. The model shows that alliances often emerge in a phase transition-like fashion if the group size, awareness, aggressiveness, and persuasiveness of individuals are large and the decay rate of individual affinities is small. With cultural inheritance of social networks, a single leveling alliance including all group members can emerge in several generations.\\n\\nConclusions/Significance\\nWe propose a simple and flexible theoretical approach for studying the dynamics of alliance emergence applicable where game-theoretic methods are not practical. Our approach is both scalable and expandable. It is scalable in that it can be generalized to larger groups, or groups of groups. It is expandable in that it allows for inclusion of additional factors such as behavioral, genetic, social, and cultural features. Our results suggest that a rapid transition from a hierarchical society of great apes to an egalitarian society of hunter-gatherers (often referred to as “egalitarian revolution”) could indeed follow an increase in human cognitive abilities. The establishment of stable group-wide egalitarian alliances creates conditions promoting the origin of cultural norms favoring the group interests over those of individuals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dynamics-alliance-formation-egalitarian-revolution", "reader_count"=>126, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>37, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60, "Arts and Humanities"=>7, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>11, "Social Sciences"=>26, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>26}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>11}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>7}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Australia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Croatia"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/920228"], "description"=>"<p>The graphs in the second column (Figures b, d and f) correspond to a run with <i>κ</i> = 1 (complete cultural inheritance of social network) and <i>μ</i> = 0.025 (increased memory of past events) which resulted in an egalitarian regime. With several alliances present simultaneously (Figures a, c and e), the average affinity <i>a</i> is small, the variance of affinities <i>v</i> is large, the measures of social inequality <i>H<sub>X</sub></i> and <i>H<sub>Y</sub></i> are large, and the correlation between social success <i>Y<sub>i</sub></i> and individual fighting ability <i>s<sub>i</sub></i> is small. In the egalitarian state (Figures b, d and f), the average affinity <i>a</i> is large, the variance of affinities <i>v</i> is small, the measures of social inequality <i>H<sub>X</sub></i> and <i>H<sub>Y</sub></i> are small, and the correlation between social success <i>Y<sub>i</sub></i> and individual fighting ability <i>s<sub>i</sub></i> is large.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["graphs", "correspond", "shown", "resulted", "alliances", "maintained", "stochastic"], "article_id"=>590673, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Sergey Gavrilets", "Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán", "Michael D. Vose"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>88, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_graphs_in_the_first_column_Figures_a_c_and_e_correspond_to_the_run_shown_in_Figure_3_with_954__0_which_resulted_in_a_small_number_of_alliances_maintained_in_stochastic_equilibrium_/590673", "title"=>"The graphs in the first column (Figures a, c and e) correspond to the run shown in Figure 3 (with <i>κ</i> = 0) which resulted in a small number of alliances maintained in stochastic equilibrium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-10-01 00:11:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/920197"], "description"=>"<p>Each graph shows the effect of changing a single parameter from its default value (results for each parameter value are averaged over 20 runs, using data from time 1000 to 2000). The vertical lines extend from minimum to maximum observations, the dashed lines depict averages, and the boxes extend from lower to upper quartiles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plots", "largest"], "article_id"=>590642, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Sergey Gavrilets", "Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán", "Michael D. Vose"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tukey_plots_for_the_effects_of_N_969_946_951_LL_on_the_C_1_measure_of_the_largest_alliance_/590642", "title"=>"Tukey plots for the effects of <i>N</i>, <i>ω</i>, <i>β</i>, <i>η</i>, <i>δ<sub>LL</sub></i> on the <i>C</i><sup>(1)</sup> measure of the largest alliance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-10-01 00:10:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/920180"], "description"=>"<p>This figure shows the <i>NxN</i> interference matrices using small squares arranged in an <i>NxN</i> array with each of the small squares color-coding for the corresponding value of <i>h<sub>ij</sub></i> using the gray scale from 0 (white) to 1 (black). The diagonal elements set to black for convenience so that the smallest squares on the diagonal represent unaffiliated individuals. For display purposes, alliances are ordered according to their clustering coefficients so that stronger alliances occur first along the diagonal. Parameters have default values except where noted. For each parameter combination shown are matrices observed in five different runs. (a) <i>N</i> = 10. (b) <i>N</i> = 20. (c) <i>N</i> = 30. (d) <i>N</i> = 20, <i>δ<sub>LL</sub></i> = −0.5. (e) <i>N</i> = 20, μ = 0.1. (f) <i>N</i> = 20, ω = 0.25.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["matrices"], "article_id"=>590628, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Sergey Gavrilets", "Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán", "Michael D. Vose"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interference_matrices_at_time_1000_/590628", "title"=>"Interference matrices at time 1000.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-10-01 00:10:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/920215"], "description"=>"<p>Parameters values are default with <i>N</i> = 20 and γ = 0.001 (so that the average life span is 1000). See the legend of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293#pone-0003293-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interference", "matrix", "stochastic", "equilibrium", "inheritance"], "article_id"=>590661, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Sergey Gavrilets", "Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán", "Michael D. Vose"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_example_of_the_dynamics_of_an_interference_matrix_in_a_stochastic_equilibrium_with_no_cultural_inheritance_954__0_/590661", "title"=>"An example of the dynamics of an interference matrix in a stochastic equilibrium with no cultural inheritance (<i>κ</i> = 0).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-10-01 00:11:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/920248"], "description"=>"<p>Other parameters are as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293#pone-0003293-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>. (a) Average (blue) and standard deviation (red) of affinities in the group. (b) Number of alliances (blue) and clustering coefficient <i>C</i><sup>(1)</sup> for the largest alliance (red). (c) Proportions of individuals belonging to an alliance (red) and to the largest alliance (blue). (d) Dynamics of the interference matrix between time 4100 and 7200.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coalitionary", "inheritance"], "article_id"=>590696, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Sergey Gavrilets", "Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán", "Michael D. Vose"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>83, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_example_of_a_coalitionary_cycle_with_complete_cultural_inheritance_954_8202_8202_1_/590696", "title"=>"An example of a coalitionary cycle with complete cultural inheritance (κ = 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2008-10-01 00:11:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/920256"], "description"=>"<p>A summary of variables, parameters, functions, and statistics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["computational biology/evolutionary modeling", "evolutionary biology/animal behavior", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "mathematics/game theory", "evolutionary biology/human evolution"], "article_id"=>590702, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Infectious Diseases", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Sergey Gavrilets", "Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán", "Michael D. Vose"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>80, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_summary_of_variables_parameters_functions_and_statistics_/590702", "title"=>"A summary of variables, parameters, functions, and statistics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2008-10-01 00:11:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454175", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454190", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454201", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454216", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454227", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454243", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454255", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454268", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454284", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454297", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/454322"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Arguably the most influential force in human history is the formation of social coalitions and alliances (i.e., long-lasting coalitions) and their impact on individual power. Understanding the dynamics of alliance formation and its consequences for biological, social, and cultural evolution is a formidable theoretical challenge. In most great ape species, coalitions occur at individual and group levels and among both kin and non-kin. Nonetheless, ape societies remain essentially hierarchical, and coalitions rarely weaken social inequality. In contrast, human hunter-gatherers show a remarkable tendency to egalitarianism, and human coalitions and alliances occur not only among individuals and groups, but also among groups of groups. These observations suggest that the evolutionary dynamics of human coalitions can only be understood in the context of social networks and cognitive evolution.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of networks of allies resulting from within-group competition for status or mates between individuals utilizing dyadic information. The model shows that alliances often emerge in a phase transition-like fashion if the group size, awareness, aggressiveness, and persuasiveness of individuals are large and the decay rate of individual affinities is small. With cultural inheritance of social networks, a single leveling alliance including all group members can emerge in several generations.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>We propose a simple and flexible theoretical approach for studying the dynamics of alliance emergence applicable where game-theoretic methods are not practical. Our approach is both scalable and expandable. It is scalable in that it can be generalized to larger groups, or groups of groups. It is expandable in that it allows for inclusion of additional factors such as behavioral, genetic, social, and cultural features. Our results suggest that a rapid transition from a hierarchical society of great apes to an egalitarian society of hunter-gatherers (often referred to as “egalitarian revolution”) could indeed follow an increase in human cognitive abilities. The establishment of stable group-wide egalitarian alliances creates conditions promoting the origin of cultural norms favoring the group interests over those of individuals.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["egalitarian"], "article_id"=>149486, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Cancer", "Mathematics"], "users"=>["Sergey Gavrilets", "Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán", "Michael D. Vose"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003293.s011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Dynamics_of_Alliance_Formation_and_the_Egalitarian_Revolution/149486", "title"=>"Dynamics of Alliance Formation and the Egalitarian Revolution", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2008-10-01 02:38:06"}

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