Complete Primate Skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: Morphology and Paleobiology
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{"title"=>"Complete primate skeleton from the middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: Morphology and paleobiology", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jens L.", "last_name"=>"Franzen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005447566"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip D.", "last_name"=>"Gingerich", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006477387"}, {"first_name"=>"J??rg", "last_name"=>"Habersetzer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602337251"}, {"first_name"=>"J??rn H.", "last_name"=>"Hurum", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602194686"}, {"first_name"=>"Wighart", "last_name"=>"von Koenigswald", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603287914"}, {"first_name"=>"B. Holly", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"56379121300"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)", "pmid"=>"19492084", "pui"=>"354864994", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-67650076116", "sgr"=>"67650076116", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0005723"}, "id"=>"5a8777e2-486f-3617-b935-ab875734a257", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as Darwinius masillae n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650-900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Darwinius masillae represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the Darwinius holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that Darwinius masillae is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/complete-primate-skeleton-middle-eocene-messel-germany-morphology-paleobiology", "reader_count"=>378, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>98, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>88, "Student > Postgraduate"=>22, "Student > Master"=>48, "Other"=>25, "Student > Bachelor"=>31, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>23}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>17, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>98, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>88, "Student > Postgraduate"=>22, "Student > Master"=>48, "Other"=>25, "Student > Bachelor"=>31, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>23}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>218, "Arts and Humanities"=>9, "Philosophy"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>72, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>26}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>26}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>9}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>72}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>218}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>5, "Argentina"=>8, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>18, "Philippines"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>10, "Portugal"=>2, "Spain"=>1, "Venezuela"=>1, "Canada"=>3, "Sweden"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>2, "Norway"=>1, "Brazil"=>6, "Poland"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>3, "Chile"=>5, "Germany"=>9}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900247"], "description"=>"<p>Stage of tooth eruption indicates that when it died <i>Darwinius</i> was about 9–10 months old (gray bar) on a <i>Saimiri</i> developmental scale. Growth as a proportion of 36-month adult size is plotted by age in months, with developmental events added for the interval from birth to 36 months along the bottom. <i>Saimiri</i> is born with deciduous incisors erupted and quickly completes the deciduous dentition. Note that adult brain weight is achieved rapidly in development; adult foot length, head and body length, and femur length are achieved more slowly; and adult body weight is achieved very slowly. Using <i>Saimiri</i> as a model, we estimate that <i>Darwinius</i> died at about 60% of its projected adult body weight, 80–85% of its projected adult body and limb length, and 98% of its projected adult brain weight. By this model, <i>Darwinius</i> is projected to add 66% (1/0.60) to its weight, 20% to its body and limb length (averaging 1/0.80 and 1/0.85), and 2% to its brain weight (1/0.98). Sources: tooth development, weight, head-body, and foot lengths are from the same captive growth study <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Long1\" target=\"_blank\">[79]</a>; other studies give brain weight <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Manocha1\" target=\"_blank\">[80]</a>, femur length <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Pucciarelli1\" target=\"_blank\">[81]</a>, and long-bone maturation <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Tappen1\" target=\"_blank\">[82]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extant", "squirrel"], "article_id"=>570701, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_and_development_in_extant_squirrel_monkey_Saimiri_sciureus_as_a_model_for_growth_expected_in_Darwinius_masillae_/570701", "title"=>"Growth and development in extant squirrel monkey <i>Saimiri sciureus</i> as a model for growth expected in <i>Darwinius masillae</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 00:11:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899537"], "description"=>"<p>Photograph (A) and X-ray image (B) show the specimen preserved on plate A (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). Note excrescence at the distal end of the right forearm, and a fracture of the basal phalanx of the left pollex (details are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 9</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["girdle", "forelimb", "genus"], "article_id"=>569996, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shoulder_girdle_and_forelimb_of_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_/569996", "title"=>"Shoulder girdle and forelimb of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 02:46:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898756"], "description"=>"<p>(A)— CT image of the skull in plate A, viewed from the right side. (B)— CT image of the skull in plate A, viewed from the left side. Note the presence of a postorbital bar, parts of the auditory bulla below the acoustic opening, and possible hyoid bones. Tooth homologies are mapped in greater detail in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a> and sutures in S2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genus"], "article_id"=>569213, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Micro_CT_of_the_skull_of_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_/569213", "title"=>"Micro-CT of the skull of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 02:33:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900593"], "description"=>"<p>Based on Micro-CT reconstructions of teeth and x-radiographs of the skeleton.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["postcranial", "skeleton", "holotype"], "article_id"=>571048, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_the_skull_and_postcranial_skeleton_of_the_holotype_of_Darwinius_masillae_n_gen_n_sp_/571048", "title"=>"Measurements of the skull and postcranial skeleton of the holotype of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, n. gen., n. sp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 00:17:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898019"], "description"=>"<p>(A)— Plate A (PMO 214.214) showing holotype skeleton in right lateral view. (B)— Plate B (WDC-MG-210) left side of holotype (reversed for comparison with plate A). Plates show part and counterpart of the same skeleton. Plates have different museum numbers because they are in different museum collections. Note the exceptional completeness of the articulated skeleton in plate A, with left and right hands and the right foot complete, including distal phalanges, and the tail complete to the tip. Stained matrix shows the soft-tissue body outline. Abdomen contains organic remains of food in the digestive tract. All of plate A and parts 1 and 2 on plate B (enclosed in dashed lines) are genuine; remainder of plate B was fabricated during preparation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genus", "messel"], "article_id"=>568472, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_from_Messel_in_Germany_/568472", "title"=>"<i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species, from Messel in Germany.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 02:21:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899737"], "description"=>"<p>Photograph (A) and X-ray image (B) show the specimen preserved on plate A (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). (C)— explanatory drawing, where I–V represent digits one to five. (D)— Inset interpretive drawing of the left wrist (box in C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genus"], "article_id"=>570196, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hands_and_wrist_of_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_/570196", "title"=>"Hands and wrist of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 00:03:16"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900346"], "description"=>"<p>(A)— Bivariate plot of PC-I and PC-II, with both axes drawn to the same scale. All loadings for PC-I are similar and positive, indicating that PC-I represents body size (small primates are at left and larger primates are at right; the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) for PC-I and body weight is greater than 0.8). Loadings for PC-II contrast thorax length and foot length, with climbers having a longer thorax and shorter foot, and leapers having a longer foot and shorter thorax. (B)— Bivariate plot of PC-III and PC-II, with both axes drawn to the same scale. Interpretation of PC-II is the same as in A, but here the scale is expanded. Loadings for PC-III contrast lumbus length and scapula length, with climbers having a longer lumbus and shorter scapula, and leapers having a longer scapula and shorter lumbus. <i>Darwinius</i> can be projected into this PCA in two ways: as the juvenile it is (filled red circle) or the adult it is projected to become (open red circle; projection computed by augmenting each body segment by the amount it is expected to grow to reach adulthood, using growth curves of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Sirianni1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a>. Position of <i>Notharctus</i> is shown for comparison, based on measurements in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Gregory1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>. Family abbreviations: Lemuroidea– <i>Che</i>, Cheirogaleiidae; <i>Dau</i>, Daubentoniidae; <i>Ind</i>., Indriidae; <i>Lep</i>, Lepilemuridae. Lorisoidea– <i>Gal</i>., Galagidae; <i>Lor</i>., Lorisidae. Tarsioidea– <i>Tar</i>., Tarsiidae. Ceboidea– <i>Cal</i>., Callitrichidae; <i>Ceb</i>., Ceboidea. Note that <i>Darwinius</i> falls in the middle of both plots, near Callitrichidae in size, and overlapping Lemuridae and Cebidae in trunk and limb proportions. <i>Darwinius</i> is interpreted as an arboreal quadruped specialized neither for slow climbing nor for leaping.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["components", "proportions", "extant"], "article_id"=>570801, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principle_components_analysis_PCA_of_trunk_and_limb_proportions_in_extant_Lemuroidea_Lorisoidea_Tarsioidea_and_Ceboidea_/570801", "title"=>"Principle components analysis (PCA) of trunk and limb proportions in extant Lemuroidea, Lorisoidea, Tarsioidea, and Ceboidea.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 00:13:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898521"], "description"=>"<p>(A)— <i>Europolemur klatti</i> (Weigelt, 1933), GMH CeIV-3656, left and right mandible with I<sub>1–2</sub>, C<sub>1</sub>, P<sub>2</sub>-M<sub>3</sub>d and I<sub>1–2</sub>, C<sub>1</sub>, P<sub>3</sub>-M<sub>3</sub>s. (B)— <i>Europolemur klatti</i> (Weigelt, 1933), GMH LeoI-4233, part of the skull with upper dentition, which is part of the holotype. (C)— <i>Europolemur klatti</i> (Weigelt, 1933), GMH XXXVII-120, fragmentary left mandible with double-rooted P<sub>2</sub>, P<sub>3–4</sub>, and heavily worn M<sub>1–3</sub>. (D)— <i>Europolemur klatti</i> (Weigelt, 1933), GMH XXII-1, right mandibular ramus with P<sub>3</sub>-M<sub>3</sub> and alveoli for a double rooted P<sub>2</sub>. (E)— <i>Protoadapis ignoratus</i> (Thalmann, 1994), GMH XXII-549, part of type specimen, fragment of right mandible with C<sub>1</sub>, P<sub>3–4</sub>, M<sub>1</sub>, alveoli of P<sub>2</sub> and M<sub>3</sub> (mirrored). (F)— <i>Protoadapis weigelti</i> Gingerich, 1977, GMH XXII-624, right mandibular ramus with P<sub>3</sub>-M<sub>3</sub>, root of a small single-rooted P<sub>2</sub> and alveolus of C<sub>1</sub>, which is isolated (mirrored). (G)— <i>Godinotia neglecta</i> (Thalmann, Haubold & Martin, 1989), holotype (GMH L-2), detail: palate containing M<sup>3</sup>-P<sup>3</sup>s and d, and the small unicuspid and one-rooted P<sup>2</sup>s. Arrows show the position of P<sup>2</sup>/P<sub>2</sub>. Geiseltal primates come from Middle Eocene zones MP12 and 13, slightly later in time than those from Messel (MP11). <i>Godinotia neglecta</i>, like <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, is distinguished from <i>Europolemur klatti</i> by the presence of small, straight, single-rooted P<sup>2</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eocene", "primates", "geiseltal"], "article_id"=>568973, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Radiographic_comparison_of_middle_Eocene_primates_from_Geiseltal_in_eastern_Germany_/568973", "title"=>"Radiographic comparison of middle Eocene primates from Geiseltal in eastern Germany.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 02:29:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444684", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444707", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444734", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444745", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444761", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444774", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444785", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/444799"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The best European locality for complete Eocene mammal skeletons is Grube Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany. Although the site was surrounded by a para-tropical rain forest in the Eocene, primates are remarkably rare there, and only eight fragmentary specimens were known until now. Messel has now yielded a full primate skeleton. The specimen has an unusual history: it was privately collected and sold in two parts, with only the lesser part previously known. The second part, which has just come to light, shows the skeleton to be the most complete primate known in the fossil record.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We describe the morphology and investigate the paleobiology of the skeleton. The specimen is described as <em>Darwinius masillae</em> n.gen. n.sp. belonging to the Cercamoniinae. Because the skeleton is lightly crushed and bones cannot be handled individually, imaging studies are of particular importance. Skull radiography shows a host of teeth developing within the juvenile face. Investigation of growth and proportion suggest that the individual was a weaned and independent-feeding female that died in her first year of life, and might have attained a body weight of 650–900 g had she lived to adulthood. She was an agile, nail-bearing, generalized arboreal quadruped living above the floor of the Messel rain forest.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p><em>Darwinius masillae</em> represents the most complete fossil primate ever found, including both skeleton, soft body outline and contents of the digestive tract. Study of all these features allows a fairly complete reconstruction of life history, locomotion, and diet. Any future study of Eocene-Oligocene primates should benefit from information preserved in the <em>Darwinius</em> holotype. Of particular importance to phylogenetic studies, the absence of a toilet claw and a toothcomb demonstrates that <em>Darwinius masillae</em> is not simply a fossil lemur, but part of a larger group of primates, Adapoidea, representative of the early haplorhine diversification.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["primate", "skeleton", "eocene", "messel", "morphology", "paleobiology"], "article_id"=>147632, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Complete_Primate_Skeleton_from_the_Middle_Eocene_of_Messel_in_Germany_Morphology_and_Paleobiology/147632", "title"=>"Complete Primate Skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: Morphology and Paleobiology", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 02:07:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900145"], "description"=>"<p>Photograph (A) and X-ray image (B) show the specimen preserved on plate A (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). (C)— explanatory drawing. (D)— drawing of foot of <i>Eulemur mongoz</i> for comparison. Note the large opposable hallux, and absence of a grooming claw on digit II in <i>Darwinius</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genus"], "article_id"=>570600, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Right_foot_of_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_/570600", "title"=>"Right foot of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 00:10:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899289"], "description"=>"<p>Measurements of <i>Darwinius</i> were taken from plate A (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). <i>Darwinius</i>, <i>Europolemur</i>, and <i>Notharctus</i> are Eocene adapoids; <i>Ateles</i> and <i>Callithrix</i> are extant Ceboidea; and <i>Avahi</i> and <i>Eulemur</i> are extant Lemuroidea. Measurements of comparative specimens are from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Gregory1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Franzen11\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>, with new measurements added for <i>Avahi</i>. Note that the profile for <i>Darwinius</i> is flatter (rises less high and declines less rapidly) than that for any of the comparative specimens.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["caudal", "vertebrae", "genus", "compared"], "article_id"=>569739, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>63, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Length_profile_for_caudal_vertebrae_of_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_compared_to_those_of_other_primates_/569739", "title"=>"Length profile for caudal vertebrae of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species, compared to those of other primates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 02:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900420"], "description"=>"<p><i>Darwinius</i> (<i>D</i>) has orbits in the nocturnal range (solid circles), while <i>Adapis magnus</i> (<i>A1</i>), <i>Adapis parisiensis</i> (<i>A2</i>), and <i>Notharctus osbornianus</i> (<i>N</i>) are in the diurnal range (open squares). Diagram modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Franzen1\" target=\"_blank\">[1: fig. 10]</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Dagosto2\" target=\"_blank\">[55: 7.6]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["eyes", "orbits", "compared", "fossil"], "article_id"=>570876, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_size_of_the_eyes_and_orbits_in_Darwinius_compared_to_those_of_other_living_and_fossil_primates_/570876", "title"=>"Relative size of the eyes and orbits in <i>Darwinius</i> compared to those of other living and fossil primates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 00:14:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900551"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: <i>Lem</i>., Lemuroidea; <i>Lor</i>., Lorisoidea; <i>Tar</i>., Tarsioidea; <i>Ceb</i>., Ceboidea; <i>Cer</i>., Cercopithecoidea; <i>Hom</i>., Hominoidea; <i>N/A</i>, not applicable; <i>Synap</i>., synapomorphy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphology", "characteristics", "distinguishing", "extant", "strepsirrhine", "haplorhine"], "article_id"=>571001, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interpretation_of_morphology_of_Darwinius_masillae_in_comparison_to_characteristics_distinguishing_extant_strepsirrhine_and_haplorhine_primates_/571001", "title"=>"Interpretation of morphology of <i>Darwinius masillae</i> in comparison to characteristics distinguishing extant strepsirrhine and haplorhine primates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 00:16:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898994"], "description"=>"<p>Deciduous dI<sub>2</sub> has not yet been shed, and dC<sup>1</sup>/dC<sub>1</sub>, dP<sup>3</sup>/dP<sub>3</sub>, and dP<sup>4</sup>/dP<sub>4</sub> are still functional. Permanent teeth that are fully erupted include I<sup>1</sup>/I<sub>1</sub>, P<sup>2</sup>/P<sub>2</sub>, and M<sup>1</sup>/M<sub>1</sub> (P2 is present on plate B [1). Erupting teeth include I<sup>2</sup>/I<sub>2</sub> and M<sup>2</sup>/M<sub>2</sub>. Crowns of M<sup>3</sup>/M<sub>3</sub> are fully formed but lack roots. Crowns of P<sup>3</sup>/P<sub>3</sub> and P<sup>4</sup>/P<sub>4</sub> are partially formed, with P<sup>4</sup>/P<sub>4</sub> notably more developed than P<sup>3</sup>/P<sub>3</sub>. The crown of C<sup>1</sup> appears to be fully formed, while that of C<sub>1</sub> is less mineralized. Judging from the stage of crown formation, premolars erupted in the sequence P<sup>2</sup>/P<sub>2</sub> – P<sup>4</sup>/P<sub>4</sub> – P<sup>3</sup>/P<sub>3</sub>, as in <i>Cantius</i> (Gingerich and Smith, in prep.), <i>Notharctus </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Gregory1\" target=\"_blank\">[23, pl. LII: 9]</a>, and <i>Europolemur </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723-Franzen5\" target=\"_blank\">[16, pl.III: 3]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deciduous", "teeth", "genus"], "article_id"=>569450, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_deciduous_and_permanent_teeth_of_the_right_side_in_the_skull_of_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_/569450", "title"=>"Map of deciduous and permanent teeth of the right side in the skull of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 02:37:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899172"], "description"=>"<p>Tooth crowns shown here were extracted digitally to show the entire crown for teeth that are only partially exposed in Plate A (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>). (A–B)— right M<sup>1</sup>, in buccal and occlusal view. (C–D)— right M<sub>1</sub>, in buccal and occlusal view. (E–F)— right M<sub>2</sub>, in buccal and occlusal view. Note the absence of a mesostyle on M<sup>1</sup>, and the presence of a hypocone on the broad lingual cingulum of this tooth. Note too the absence of a distinct paraconid and hypoconulid on M<sub>1–2</sub>, and the very broad talonid on M<sub>2</sub>. Molars of <i>Darwinius masillae</i> are distinct in morphology and intermediate in size between those of contemporary species of <i>Periconodon</i> and <i>Europolemur</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstructions", "molar", "teeth", "genus"], "article_id"=>569623, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Micro_CT_reconstructions_of_molar_teeth_of_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_/569623", "title"=>"Micro-CT reconstructions of molar teeth of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 02:40:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/899967"], "description"=>"<p>Photograph (A) and X-ray image (B) show the specimen preserved on plate A (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>). Note the large opposable hallux. Hind limb proportions are compared to those of other primates in see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S5</a>, and an explanatory drawing is provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g011\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 11</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hind", "genus"], "article_id"=>570424, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pelvis_and_hind_limb_of_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_/570424", "title"=>"Pelvis and hind limb of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 00:07:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/900638"], "description"=>"<p>Systematic synopsis of the primate remains from Messel, with museum collection numbers, Messel primate number, Messel grid coordinates (for map see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone.0005723.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["synopsis", "primate", "remains", "messel", "grid", "coordinates"], "article_id"=>571087, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Systematic_synopsis_of_the_primate_remains_from_Messel_with_museum_collection_numbers_Messel_primate_number_Messel_grid_coordinates_for_map_see_Fig_S1_/571087", "title"=>"Systematic synopsis of the primate remains from Messel, with museum collection numbers, Messel primate number, Messel grid coordinates (for map see Fig. S1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 00:18:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/898285"], "description"=>"<p>Relative positions and museum numbers as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723#pone-0005723-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. Radiographs show that all of plate A is genuine, while cranium, thorax, upper arms (part 1), and lumbus, pelvis, base of tail, and upper legs (part 2) of plate B are genuine.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "genus", "messel"], "article_id"=>568740, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Jens L. Franzen", "Philip D. Gingerich", "Jörg Habersetzer", "Jørn H. Hurum", "Wighart von Koenigswald", "B. Holly Smith"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005723.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Radiographs_of_the_type_specimen_of_Darwinius_masillae_new_genus_and_species_from_Messel_in_Germany_/568740", "title"=>"Radiographs of the type specimen of <i>Darwinius masillae</i>, new genus and species, from Messel in Germany.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-19 02:25:40"}

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