Synthetic Morphology Using Alternative Inputs
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{"title"=>"Synthetic morphology using alternative inputs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hiromasa", "last_name"=>"Tanaka", "scopus_author_id"=>"7407695266"}, {"first_name"=>"Tau Mu", "last_name"=>"Yi", "scopus_author_id"=>"8074514900"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"70349177735", "pui"=>"355275638", "pmid"=>"19746161", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0006946", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-70349177735"}, "id"=>"533c5a66-e927-31a2-875f-699f9fcb4fcc", "abstract"=>"Designing the shape and size of a cell is an interesting challenge for synthetic biology. Prolonged exposure to the mating pheromone alpha-factor induces an unusual morphology in yeast cells: multiple mating projections. The goal of this work was to reproduce the multiple projections phenotype in the absence of alpha-factor using a gain-of-function approach termed \"Alternative Inputs (AIs)\". An alternative input is defined as any genetic manipulation that can activate the signaling pathway instead of the natural input. Interestingly, none of the alternative inputs were sufficient to produce multiple projections although some produced a single projection. Then, we extended our search by creating all combinations of alternative inputs and deletions that were summarized in an AIs-Deletions matrix. We found a genetic manipulation (AI-Ste5p ste2Delta) that enhanced the formation of multiple projections. Following up this lead, we demonstrated that AI-Ste4p and AI-Ste5p were sufficient to produce multiple projections when combined. Further, we showed that overexpression of a membrane-targeted form of Ste5p alone could also induce multiple projections. Thus, we successfully re-engineered the multiple projections mating morphology using alternative inputs without alpha-factor.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/synthetic-morphology-using-alternative-inputs", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/885058"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Transcriptional activation induced by Ste5p-CTM and AI-Ste7p. Ste5p-CTM (green square) and AI-Ste7p (red circle) were overexpressed in a <i>gal2Δ</i> strain. Induction level of alternative inputs was estimated using <i>P<sub>GAL1</sub>-GFP</i> reporter (blue diamond). Transcriptional activation was measured at t = 24 h. <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600</sub> values were averaged from at least three measurements, and error bars show mean±SEM. (B) Numbers of projections produced by Ste5p-CTM in a <i>gal2Δ</i> strain background. For each galactose concentration, we determined the percent of cells with 0 or 1, 2, 3, and 4 or greater projections (t = 24 h, Gal = 0.1, 1, 2, 3%, at least 100 responding cells). At Gal = 0%, we observed more than 400 cells, and responding cells were less than 1%. (C) Morphological phenotypes produced by AI-Ste7p in a <i>gal2Δ</i> strain background. Morphologies at Gal = 0.1% (left) and at Gal = 2% (right). The average projection length (measured from 50 cells) is shown below each picture. Scale bar = 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphology", "inputs"], "article_id"=>555520, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transcription_and_morphology_as_the_level_of_alternative_inputs_is_varied_/555520", "title"=>"Transcription and morphology as the level of alternative inputs is varied.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:32:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/885374"], "description"=>"<p>Yeast strains used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strains"], "article_id"=>555835, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Yeast_strains_used_in_this_study_/555835", "title"=>"Yeast strains used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:37:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884815"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Transcriptional activation of <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i> (t = 24 h) by 1 µM α-factor, AI-Ste5p, and AI-Ste4p + AI-Ste5p. For the first two inputs, the strain backgrounds were wild-type (black), <i>sst2Δ</i> (gray), and <i>sst2Δ ste4Δ</i> (white); AI-Ste4p + AI-Ste5p was measured only in the wild-type background and not determined (ND) in <i>sst2Δ</i> and <i>sst2Δ ste4Δ</i> strains. <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600</sub> values were averaged from at least three measurements, and bar graphs show mean±SEM. (B) Morphologies of AI-Ste5p-stimulated cells in wild-type, <i>sst2Δ</i>, and <i>sst2Δ ste4Δ</i> strain backgrounds (t = 24 h). Morphologies of <i>a</i>-factor (1 µM) and non-stimulated cells in an <i>sst2Δ</i> strain background (t = 24 h). (C) Numbers of projections produced by AI-Ste5p and (AI-Ste4p + AI-Ste5p) cells. For each of the inputs and strain backgrounds, we determined the percent of cells with 0 or 1, 2, 3, and 4 or greater projections (t = 24 h, at least 100 responding cells). (D) Localization of polarity markers in (AI-Ste4p + AI-Ste5p)-induced cells. The percent (%) of proper localization is shown and was determined as described previously in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946#pone-0006946-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4A</a> (at least 100 responding cells with more than one projection were counted). Images of wild-type cells treated with α-factor are reproduced from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946#pone-0006946-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4A</a>. Scale bar = 10 µm. (E) Morphologies and transcriptional activation of (AI-Ste4p + AI-Ste5p) cells in <i>mfα2Δ</i> and <i>ste11Δ</i> strain backgrounds (t = 24 h). <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600</sub> values were averaged from at least three measurements, and bar graphs show mean±SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["projections", "induced", "inputs"], "article_id"=>555276, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multiple_projections_induced_by_alternative_inputs_without_945_factor_/555276", "title"=>"Multiple projections induced by alternative inputs without α-factor.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:27:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/885213"], "description"=>"<p>Arrow diagram explaining multiple projections in (AI-Ste4p + AI-Ste5p) cells. The diagram combines the α-factor transcription pathway with the ability of Ste5p to make projections in the absence of transcriptional activation. Transcription without polarization cannot produce multiple projections, and polarization without transcription likewise does not result in multiple projections. However, the two together at proper strength can make multiple projections.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["projections", "induced", "ai-ste4p"], "article_id"=>555674, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_for_how_multiple_projections_were_induced_by_AI_Ste4p_and_AI_Ste5p_/555674", "title"=>"Model for how multiple projections were induced by AI-Ste4p and AI-Ste5p.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:34:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/885398"], "description"=>"*<p><i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600</sub> values were averaged from at least three measurements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["matrix", "transcriptional"], "article_id"=>555861, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AIs_Deletions_matrix_of_transcriptional_activation_/555861", "title"=>"AIs-Deletions matrix of transcriptional activation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:37:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884509"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Localization of Ste20p-GFP, F-actin and Spa2p-GFP in cells stimulated by α-factor or selected alternative inputs. The GFP-tagged proteins were integrated into the genome; F-actin was stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin. After 24 hours of induction, the cells were fixed and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The percent (%) of proper localization is shown at the bottom-left in each figure and represents the percentage of cells exhibiting the canonical localization pattern for the marker when stimulated by α-factor. Note that not all α-factor treated cells showed this pattern. At least three independent experiments were analyzed for each strain. The blue arrows indicate aberrant actin cables. The scale bar represents 10 µm. (B) Percent of cells containing aberrant F-actin cables. Thick disorganized cables were categorized as aberrant. Data is from at least three independent experiments per input (t = 24 h). (C) Percent of cells showing dispersed Spa2p-GFP localization. Most cells treated with α-factor showed a punctuate patch near the tip of the mating projection. Cells induced by the AIs showed Spa2p-GFP distributed more diffusely along the membrane and in the cytoplasm, which was categorized as a dispersed localization pattern. The numbers of cells with this dispersed localization pattern were counted for each input (at least three independent experiments per input).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inputs", "caused", "mislocalization", "polarity"], "article_id"=>554967, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Alternative_inputs_caused_mislocalization_of_polarity_markers_/554967", "title"=>"Alternative inputs caused mislocalization of polarity markers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:22:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884924"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Transcriptional activation induced by Ste5p-CTM. Ste5p (AI-Ste5p, black) and Ste5p-CTM (white) were overexpressed in a wild-type strain and the seven deletion strains of the mating pathway. Transcriptional activation was measured at t = 24 h. <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600</sub> values were averaged from at least three measurements, and bar graphs show mean±SEM. (B) Numbers of projections produced by AI-Ste4p+AI-Ste5p and Ste5p-CTM cells in a wild-type background and Ste5p-CTM cells in <i>ste2Δ</i>, <i>ste4Δ</i>, and <i>ste5Δ</i> strains. For each of the inputs and strain backgrounds, we determined the percent of cells with 0 or 1, 2, 3, and 4 or greater projections (t = 24 h, at least 100 responding cells). (C) Correlation between transcriptional activation and numbers of projections in Ste5p strains. Transcriptional activation (<i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600</sub> values) and numbers of multiple projections (“+++” indicates WT levels of projections, “++” indicates more projections than AI-Ste5p (indicated as “+”) but fewer projections than WT) were summarized for each genetic manipulation with Ste5p that produced multiple projections. (D) Time-course of number of projections produced by Ste5p-CTM. For each time point, we determined the percent of cells with 0 or 1, 2, 3, and 4 or greater projections (t = 8, 16, 24 h, at least 100 responding cells). At t = 0 h, we observed more than 400 cells, and responding cells were less than 1%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["projections", "induced", "membrane", "targeting"], "article_id"=>555380, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multiple_projections_induced_by_membrane_targeting_of_Ste5p_/555380", "title"=>"Multiple projections induced by membrane targeting of Ste5p.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:29:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884307"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Transcriptional activation induced by alternative inputs. Either α-factor (1 µM) or the alternative inputs were added and transcriptional activation was measured at an early time point (t = 4 hours, white bars) and a late time point (t = 24 hours, black bars) using the <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i> reporter. GFP fluorescence (arbitrary units) was normalized by dividing by the cell density (OD<sub>600</sub> units). The control was cells unstimulated by α-factor or an alternative input. <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600</sub> values were averaged from at least three measurements, and bar graphs show mean±SEM. (B) Morphologies induced by α-factor (1 µM) or alternative inputs. Bright field images taken at t = 24 h of a typical set of cells for each AI. The morphologies of AI-Ste2p (<i>P<sub>GAL1</sub>-STE2<sup>P258L S259L</sup></i>) and AI-Fus3p (<i>P<sub>GAL1</sub>-FUS3<sup>I161L</sup></i>) are not shown; they resembled the control cells. The scale bar represents 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["outputs", "produced", "inputs"], "article_id"=>554768, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_different_outputs_produced_by_alternative_inputs_to_945_factor_/554768", "title"=>"Two different outputs produced by alternative inputs to α-factor.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:19:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/885338"], "description"=>"<p>Plasmids used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology/morphogenesis and cell biology", "computational biology/synthetic biology", "computational biology/systems biology"], "article_id"=>555805, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plasmids_used_in_this_study_/555805", "title"=>"Plasmids used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:36:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438471", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438480", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/438494"], "description"=>"<div><p>Designing the shape and size of a cell is an interesting challenge for synthetic biology. Prolonged exposure to the mating pheromone α-factor induces an unusual morphology in yeast cells: multiple mating projections. The goal of this work was to reproduce the multiple projections phenotype in the absence of α-factor using a gain-of-function approach termed “Alternative Inputs (AIs)”. An alternative input is defined as any genetic manipulation that can activate the signaling pathway instead of the natural input. Interestingly, none of the alternative inputs were sufficient to produce multiple projections although some produced a single projection. Then, we extended our search by creating all combinations of alternative inputs and deletions that were summarized in an AIs-Deletions matrix. We found a genetic manipulation (AI-Ste5p <em>ste2Δ</em>) that enhanced the formation of multiple projections. Following up this lead, we demonstrated that AI-Ste4p and AI-Ste5p were sufficient to produce multiple projections when combined. Further, we showed that overexpression of a membrane-targeted form of Ste5p alone could also induce multiple projections. Thus, we successfully re-engineered the multiple projections mating morphology using alternative inputs without α-factor.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["synthetic", "morphology", "inputs"], "article_id"=>146455, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Synthetic_Morphology_Using_Alternative_Inputs/146455", "title"=>"Synthetic Morphology Using Alternative Inputs", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:47:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884405"], "description"=>"<p>Bright field images taken at t = 24 h of AI cells induced with galactose and treated with 1 µM α-factor. AI-Ste4p, AI-Ste7p, and AI-Fus3p cells were each exposed to α-factor. To ensure that the responding cells had not lost the AI plasmid, each alternative input was overexpressed in its deletion strain (genotypes are above the images). The percent (%) of the most predominant phenotype (m = multiple projections, i.e. more than three; P = one long projection) is shown at the top-left of each image. At least 100 responding cells were analyzed in each strain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["induced", "ais"], "article_id"=>554867, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphologies_induced_by_AIs_945_factor_/554867", "title"=>"Morphologies induced by AIs + <i>α</i>-factor.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:21:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884662"], "description"=>"<p>Bright field images of cells containing all possible combinations of inputs and deletions were taken after 24 hours and the observed morphologies were classified (details in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946#s4\" target=\"_blank\">materials and methods</a>). The characters located in the top-right corner of each picture indicate the representative morphological phenotype. The classification scheme is as follows: (a) m = multiple projections (more than three); (b) m* = multiple projections that depend on the <i>MFα2</i> gene; (c) 2(3) = two or three projections; (d) P = one long projection; (e) p = one short projection; (f) e = elongated cells including cells with one projection; (g) e* = elongated cells including budding cells; (h) L = large cells; (i) s = small cells. The color of the characters indicate the degree of transcriptional activation: <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600</sub> <50 (blue); 50<i> P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600</sub> <60 (purple); <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i>/OD<sub>600 </sub>60 (red). The scale bar represents 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["matrix"], "article_id"=>555123, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AIs_Deletions_matrix_of_morphology_/555123", "title"=>"AIs-Deletions matrix of morphology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:25:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/884209"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The α-factor-transcription pathway in the yeast mating signaling network. This signaling pathway contains seven key proteins (Ste2p, Ste4p, Ste5p, Ste11p, Ste7p, Fus3p, and Ste12p) between α-factor and transcriptional activation. An alternative input for each of these components was created. The blue proteins (Ste2p, Ste4p, Gpa1p, Ste18p, Sst2p) belong to the heterotrimeric G-protein cycle, the brown proteins represent the MAPK cascade (Ste5p, Ste11p, Ste7p, Fus3p), the red protein is the transcription factor Ste12p, and the purple proteins (Cdc42p, Ste20p) are involved in cell polarization as well as MAPK signaling. The production of GFP from an integrated <i>P<sub>FUS1</sub>-GFP</i> reporter provided the read-out for pheromone-induced transcription. (B) Experimental overview for using alternative inputs to α-factor to investigate cell morphology. When α-factor or alternative inputs to α-factor are added, cells induce transcriptional activation. When α-factor is added, cells produce multiple projections. We addressed the question whether cells produce multiple projections when alternative inputs are used, and how we can manipulate cell morphology using alternative inputs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["inputs"], "article_id"=>554674, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Hiromasa Tanaka", "Tau-Mu Yi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006946.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Alternative_Inputs_to_945_factor_/554674", "title"=>"Alternative Inputs to <i>α</i>-factor.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-10 01:17:54"}

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  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"11", "unique-ip"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0"}
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  • {"scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "month"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "full-text"=>"12", "unique-ip"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "year"=>"2009", "figure"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
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Relative Metric

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