Dragon's Paradise Lost: Palaeobiogeography, Evolution and Extinction of the Largest-Ever Terrestrial Lizards (Varanidae)
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{"title"=>"Dragon's paradise lost: Palaeobiogeography, evolution and extinction of the largest-ever terrestrial lizards (varanidae)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Scott A.", "last_name"=>"Hocknull", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508238163"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip J.", "last_name"=>"Piper", "scopus_author_id"=>"15849018500"}, {"first_name"=>"Gert D.", "last_name"=>"van den Bergh", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602575711"}, {"first_name"=>"Rokus Awe", "last_name"=>"Due", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603592395"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Morwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603099496"}, {"first_name"=>"Iwan", "last_name"=>"Kurniawan", "scopus_author_id"=>"8868163000"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"70349638507", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-70349638507", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0007241", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"355367789", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"19789642"}, "id"=>"58ca2174-c0dd-3386-adc9-5f6b0a52abb1", "abstract"=>"Background: The largest living lizard species, Varanus komodoensis Ouwens 1912, is vulnerable to extinction, being restricted to a few isolated islands in eastern Indonesia, between Java and Australia, where it is the dominant terrestrial carnivore. Understanding how large-bodied varanids responded to past environmental change underpins long-term management of V. komodoensis populations. Methodology/Principal Findings: We reconstruct the palaeobiogeography of Neogene giant varanids and identify a new (unnamed) species from the island of Timor. Our data reject the long-held perception that V. komodoensis became a giant because of insular evolution or as a specialist hunter of pygmy Stegodon. Phyletic giantism, coupled with a westward dispersal from mainland Australia, provides the most parsimonious explanation for the palaeodistribution of V. komodoensis and the newly identified species of giant varanid from Timor. Pliocene giant varanid fossils from Australia are morphologically referable to V. komodoensis suggesting an ultimate origin for V. komodoensis on mainland Australia (.3.8 million years ago). Varanus komodoensis body size has remained stable over the last 900,000 years (ka) on Flores, a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the island’s megafauna, the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka, co-existence with Homo floresiensis, and the arrival of modern humans by 10 ka. Within the last 2000 years their populations have contracted severely. Conclusions/Significance: Giant varanids were once a ubiquitous part of Subcontinental Eurasian and Australasian faunas during the Neogene. Extinction played a pivotal role in the reduction of their ranges and diversity throughout the late Quaternary, leaving only V. komodoensis as an isolated long-term survivor. The events over the last two millennia now threaten its future survival.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dragons-paradise-lost-palaeobiogeography-evolution-extinction-largestever-terrestrial-lizards-varani", "reader_count"=>97, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57, "Arts and Humanities"=>6, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>17}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>17}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/881658"], "description"=>"<p>A–B. Sacral vertebrae from modern (A) and fossil (LB558a) <i>V. komodoensis</i> in anterior view. C. Articulated dorsal vertebrae (LB19/20-9-04) in dorsal view. D. Cervical vertebra (LB517b) in dorsal view. E. Four isolated teeth (LB04 unreg) in lingual view. F–H. Ulna diaphysis (LB-447a/16.8.04) in medial (F), cranial (G) and lateral (H) views. I. Radius diaphysis (LB-28.7.03) in medial view. Scale bar = 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/paleontology"], "article_id"=>552112, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Varanus_komodoensis_Pleistocene_Flores_/552112", "title"=>"<i>Varanus komodoensis</i> (Pleistocene, Flores).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:35:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882455"], "description"=>"<p>Pliocene – Pleistocene fossils from Queensland representing <i>Varanus komodoensis</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pleistocene", "fossils", "queensland"], "article_id"=>552906, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pliocene_Pleistocene_fossils_from_Queensland_representing_Varanus_komodoensis_/552906", "title"=>"Pliocene – Pleistocene fossils from Queensland representing <i>Varanus komodoensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:48:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882415"], "description"=>"*<p>indicates a significant difference between samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pairwise", "comparisons", "fossil", "dorsal", "pre-post"], "article_id"=>552871, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tukey_s_pairwise_comparisons_ANOVA_table_of_fossil_and_modern_Varanus_dorsal_vertebrae_pre_post_length_measurements_/552871", "title"=>"Tukey's pairwise comparisons (ANOVA) table of fossil and modern <i>Varanus</i> dorsal vertebrae, pre-post length measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:47:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882111"], "description"=>"<p>A–F. Mid-dorsal vertebra (CV Raebia 1) compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> in anterior (A–B), left lateral (C–D), dorsal (E–F) views. G–L. Anterior caudal vertebra (CV Raebia 2) compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> in anterior (G–H), dorsal (I–J) and oblique posterior (K–L) views. M–R. Sacral vertebra (CV Raebia 3) compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> in anterior (M–N), dorsal (O–P) and ventral (Q–R) views. S. QMF 8968, sacral vertebra of <i>Varanus prisca</i> in anterior view.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/paleontology"], "article_id"=>552565, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Varanus_sp_nov_Pleistocene_Timor_/552565", "title"=>"<i>Varanus</i> sp. nov. (Pleistocene, Timor).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437121", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437194", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437268", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437326", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437389", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437440", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437479", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437520", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437600", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437659", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437699", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/437735"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>The largest living lizard species, <em>Varanus komodoensis</em> Ouwens 1912, is vulnerable to extinction, being restricted to a few isolated islands in eastern Indonesia, between Java and Australia, where it is the dominant terrestrial carnivore. Understanding how large-bodied varanids responded to past environmental change underpins long-term management of <em>V. komodoensis</em> populations.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>We reconstruct the palaeobiogeography of Neogene giant varanids and identify a new (unnamed) species from the island of Timor. Our data reject the long-held perception that <em>V. komodoensis</em> became a giant because of insular evolution or as a specialist hunter of pygmy <em>Stegodon</em>. Phyletic giantism, coupled with a westward dispersal from mainland Australia, provides the most parsimonious explanation for the palaeodistribution of <em>V. komodoensis</em> and the newly identified species of giant varanid from Timor. Pliocene giant varanid fossils from Australia are morphologically referable to <em>V. komodoensis</em> suggesting an ultimate origin for <em>V. komodoensis</em> on mainland Australia (>3.8 million years ago). <em>Varanus komodoensis</em> body size has remained stable over the last 900,000 years (ka) on Flores, a time marked by major faunal turnovers, extinction of the island's megafauna, the arrival of early hominids by 880 ka, co-existence with <em>Homo floresiensis</em>, and the arrival of modern humans by 10 ka. Within the last 2000 years their populations have contracted severely.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Giant varanids were once a ubiquitous part of Subcontinental Eurasian and Australasian faunas during the Neogene. Extinction played a pivotal role in the reduction of their ranges and diversity throughout the late Quaternary, leaving only <em>V. komodoensis</em> as an isolated long-term survivor. The events over the last two millennia now threaten its future survival.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["paradise", "extinction", "largest-ever", "terrestrial", "lizards"], "article_id"=>146193, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>49, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Dragon_s_Paradise_Lost_Palaeobiogeography_Evolution_and_Extinction_of_the_Largest_Ever_Terrestrial_Lizards_Varanidae_/146193", "title"=>"Dragon's Paradise Lost: Palaeobiogeography, Evolution and Extinction of the Largest-Ever Terrestrial Lizards (Varanidae)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 01:43:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/881953"], "description"=>"<p>A–B. NNM 17504, modern <i>Varanus komodoensis</i> humerus. C–D. NHMR 40819, distal humerus in dorsal (C) and ventral (D) views. E–I. NHMR 740, posterior dorsal vertebra compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> (white) in anterior (E–F), left lateral (G–H) and dorsal (I) views. J–N. NHMR 739, anterior dorsal compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> (white) in left lateral (J–K), anterior (L–M) and posterior (N) views. Scale bar = 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/paleontology"], "article_id"=>552400, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Varanus_sivalensis_Pliocene_India_/552400", "title"=>"<i>Varanus sivalensis</i> (Pliocene, India).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/882230"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic diagram illustrating the proposed taxonomy, chronology and dispersal sequence of giant varanids from mainland Australia to the Indonesian islands of Timor, Flores and Java during the Pliocene-Pleistocene.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chronology"], "article_id"=>552683, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Palaeogeography_and_chronology_of_giant_varanids_/552683", "title"=>"Palaeogeography and chronology of giant varanids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:44:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/881527"], "description"=>"<p>A–F. QMF 42104, posterior dorsal vertebra compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> (white), in anterior (A–B), posterior (C–D) and left lateral (E–F) views. G–L. QMF 42096, mid-dorsal vertebra compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> (white), in anterior (G–H), posterior (I–J) and right lateral (K–L) views. M–R. QMF 42102, mid-dorsal vertebra compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> (white), in anterior (M–N), posterior (O–P) and left lateral (Q–R) views. S–V. QMF 23684, cervical vertebra compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> (white), in left lateral (S–T) and anterior (U–V) views. W–X. QMF 23686, anterior dorsal vertebra compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> (white) in anterior view. Scale bar = 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/paleontology"], "article_id"=>551979, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Varanus_komodoensis_Pliocene_Australia_/551979", "title"=>"<i>Varanus komodoensis</i> (Pliocene, Australia).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:32:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/881813"], "description"=>"<p>A–F. <i>V.</i> sp. cf. <i>V. komodoensis</i>. Anterior dorsal vertebra (CD 6392) compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> in anterior (A–B), dorsal (C–D) and left lateral view (E–F). G–K. <i>V. salvator</i>. G–I. CD 8873, mid-dorsal vertebra, compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> in dorsal (G–H) and anterior (H–I) views. J–K. CD 216, sacral vertebra, compared with modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> in anterior view. Scale bar = 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/paleontology"], "article_id"=>552267, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Varanus_sp_cf_V_komodoensis_and_V_salvator_Pleistocene_Java_/552267", "title"=>"<i>Varanus</i> sp. cf. <i>V. komodoensis</i> and <i>V. salvator</i> (Pleistocene, Java).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:37:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/881401"], "description"=>"<p>A–B, E–G. Pliocene <i>V. komodoensis</i> (Australia)A–B. QMF 53955, partial left humerus in dorsal view showing position of insertion for the <i>latissimus dorsi</i> (lat dors). C–D. Left and right humerus of a modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> (NNM 17504). E–F. QMF 53954, partial right humerus in ventral and dorsal views, showing the position of the ectepicondyle (ect). G. QMF 866, partial scapulocoracoid. H–P. Pleistocene <i>V. komodoensis</i> (Australia). H–I. QMF 54605, partial left maxilla in lingual and labial views. J. QMF 54606, partial right quadrate in anterior view. K. QMF 54607, supraoccipital bone in posterior view. L. QMF 54608, proximal left tibia. M. QMF 54604, ulna diaphysis. N–P. QMF 1418, proximal mid-caudal in cranial, oblique lateral and dorsal views. Scale bar = 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/paleontology"], "article_id"=>551856, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Varanus_komodoensis_Neogene_Australia_/551856", "title"=>"<i>Varanus komodoensis</i> (Neogene, Australia).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:30:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/881180"], "description"=>"<p>A. Pre-postzygapophysis length. B. Centrum length. C. Cotylar width. D. Post-postzygapophysis width. E. Pre-prezygapophysis width. F. Tooth crown height. G. Tooth base length. H. Diaphysis width (humerus). I. Distal condyle width (humerus).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/paleontology"], "article_id"=>551635, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphometric_measurements_/551635", "title"=>"Morphometric measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:27:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/881289"], "description"=>"<p>A. Modern <i>V. komodoensis</i> skull in dorsal view (NNM 17504). B. QMF 874, right maxilla in lateral view. C. QMF 42105, partial right maxilla in dorsal view. D. QMF 42105, right maxilla in dorsal view. E. QMF 25392, complete left supraorbital in dorsal view. F. QMF 53956, partial parietal in dorsal view. G–H. QMF 42156, right quadrate in anterior and lateral views. I–J. QMF 870+871, partial left dentary in lingual view, J illustrating the tooth loci. Abbreviations: mcrst, dorsal maxillary crest; pmp, premaxillary-maxillary aperture; pms, premaxilla-maxilla suture; sym, dentary symphysis; mg, Meckalian groove. Dashed line represents broken edge of maxilla. Scale bar = 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "ecology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/evolutionary ecology", "evolutionary biology/paleontology"], "article_id"=>551745, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Scott A. Hocknull", "Philip J. Piper", "Gert D. van den Bergh", "Rokus Awe Due", "Michael J. Morwood", "Iwan Kurniawan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007241.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Varanus_komodoensis_Pliocene_Australia_/551745", "title"=>"<i>Varanus komodoensis</i> (Pliocene, Australia).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-09-30 00:29:05"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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