The Impact of Nature Experience on Willingness to Support Conservation
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{"title"=>"The impact of nature experience on willingness to support conservation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Patricia A.", "last_name"=>"Zaradic", "scopus_author_id"=>"12785555800"}, {"first_name"=>"Oliver R W", "last_name"=>"Pergams", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603111259"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Kareiva", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005653835"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"19809511", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-70350234540", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0007367", "sgr"=>"70350234540", "pui"=>"355461890"}, "id"=>"50806ad2-1db9-340a-86ee-3320b3f0903e", "abstract"=>"We hypothesized that willingness to financially support conservation depends on one's experience with nature. In order to test this hypothesis, we used a novel time-lagged correlation analysis to look at times series data concerning nature participation, and evaluate its relationship with future conservation support (measured as contributions to conservation NGOs). Our results suggest that the type and timing of nature experience may determine future conservation investment. Time spent hiking or backpacking is correlated with increased conservation contributions 11-12 years later. On the other hand, contributions are negatively correlated with past time spent on activities such as public lands visitation or fishing. Our results suggest that each hiker or backpacker translates to $200-$300 annually in future NGO contributions. We project that the recent decline in popularity of hiking and backpacking will negatively impact conservation NGO contributions from approximately 2010-2011 through at least 2018.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/impact-nature-experience-willingness-support-conservation", "reader_count"=>111, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>36, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>4, "Psychology"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>15, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>15}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>36}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/880871"], "description"=>"a<p>Data exists for 1975–1981, but we were advised by BLM (T. McDonald, <i>pers. comm.</i>) that while 1982 and later data were based on reported use at fee sites and recreation concessions, data prior to 1982 was not and was much less reliable.</p>b<p>BLM data does not exist for the four years 1990 and 1993–1995: this is not our omission.</p>c<p>Weighted by survey firm to best estimate demographics of US population.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sources", "variables"], "article_id"=>551337, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Patricia A. Zaradic", "Oliver R. W. Pergams", "Peter Kareiva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007367.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abbreviations_periods_definitions_and_sources_of_nature_variables_used_in_this_paper_/551337", "title"=>"Abbreviations, periods, definitions, and sources of nature variables used in this paper.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 04:20:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/880907"], "description"=>"*<p>indicates significant at 0.05 level, ** indicates 0.01 level, *** indicates 0.001. Correlations were performed for all possible lag periods in years. For example, results in the 1<sup>st</sup> row (State Park Visitation) indicate that there was a significant, negative correlation between state park visitation and conservation NGO revenues 4 years later (Spearman's <i>rho</i>  = −0.74545, <i>P</i><0.05, <i>N</i> = 15 comparisons. As state park visitation increased, NGO revenues <u>decreased</u> 4 years later. Conversely, as time spent backpacking/hiking (taken from the Mediamark series) increased, NGO revenues <u>increased</u> 11 years later. The table illustrates that the effect of public lands visitation (including fishing, shaded areas) had a negative effect on NGO revenues with two distinct time lags, 4–7 years later and 15–17 years later; while backpacking/hiking had a positive effect on NGO revenues 11–12 years later.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spearman", "correlations", "types", "ngo"], "article_id"=>551369, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Patricia A. Zaradic", "Oliver R. W. Pergams", "Peter Kareiva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007367.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_Spearman_correlations_between_various_types_of_nature_exposure_1_st_column_and_conservation_NGO_revenues_/551369", "title"=>"Results of Spearman correlations between various types of nature exposure (1<sup>st</sup> column) and conservation NGO revenues.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 04:20:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/880817"], "description"=>"<p>Gaps in the backpacking time series are due to lack of data for those years. “NGO contributions” is aligned with actual year of contribution on the x-axis. The backpacking and hiking series are shown lagged by +11 or +12 years to match the significantly correlated year of NGO revenue. In other words, data for “NGO Contributions” for 2006 are depicted on the graph at x-axis year 2006 along with the correlated data for “Backpack Hike” from 1995, “AT hiking” from 1995, and “Backpacking” from 1994. Based on the correlation between these variables we would project a decline in NGO contributions until at least 2018.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["capita", "contributions", "ngos", "backpacking"], "article_id"=>551271, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Patricia A. Zaradic", "Oliver R. W. Pergams", "Peter Kareiva"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007367.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparing_annual_per_capita_contributions_to_conservation_NGOs_and_participation_in_backpacking_and_hiking_/551271", "title"=>"Comparing annual per capita contributions to conservation NGOs and participation in backpacking and hiking.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 04:20:07"}

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Relative Metric

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