First Person Experience of Body Transfer in Virtual Reality
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{"title"=>"First person experience of body transfer in virtual reality", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mel", "last_name"=>"Slater", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202932472"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernhard", "last_name"=>"Spanlang", "scopus_author_id"=>"25723936000"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria V.", "last_name"=>"Sanchez-Vives", "scopus_author_id"=>"35605402100"}, {"first_name"=>"Olaf", "last_name"=>"Blanke", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004111524"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"359515510", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"20485681", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0010564", "sgr"=>"77956543868", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77956543868"}, "id"=>"b7ad967b-7bca-3688-9f63-6a764d133b9f", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Altering the normal association between touch and its visual correlate can result in the illusory perception of a fake limb as part of our own body. Thus, when touch is seen to be applied to a rubber hand while felt synchronously on the corresponding hidden real hand, an illusion of ownership of the rubber hand usually occurs. The illusion has also been demonstrated using visuomotor correlation between the movements of the hidden real hand and the seen fake hand. This type of paradigm has been used with respect to the whole body generating out-of-the-body and body substitution illusions. However, such studies have only ever manipulated a single factor and although they used a form of virtual reality have not exploited the power of immersive virtual reality (IVR) to produce radical transformations in body ownership.\\n\\nPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that a first person perspective of a life-sized virtual human female body that appears to substitute the male subjects' own bodies was sufficient to generate a body transfer illusion. This was demonstrated subjectively by questionnaire and physiologically through heart-rate deceleration in response to a threat to the virtual body. This finding is in contrast to earlier experimental studies that assume visuotactile synchrony to be the critical contributory factor in ownership illusions. Our finding was possible because IVR allowed us to use a novel experimental design for this type of problem with three independent binary factors: (i) perspective position (first or third), (ii) synchronous or asynchronous mirror reflections and (iii) synchrony or asynchrony between felt and seen touch.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: The results support the notion that bottom-up perceptual mechanisms can temporarily override top down knowledge resulting in a radical illusion of transfer of body ownership. The research also illustrates immersive virtual reality as a powerful tool in the study of body representation and experience, since it supports experimental manipulations that would otherwise be infeasible, with the technology being mature enough to represent human bodies and their motion.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/first-person-experience-body-transfer-virtual-reality-1", "reader_count"=>478, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>19, "Researcher"=>91, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>31, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>131, "Student > Postgraduate"=>13, "Student > Master"=>68, "Other"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>53, "Lecturer"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>8, "Professor"=>33}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>19, "Researcher"=>91, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>31, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/423128", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/423173", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/423214", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/423247", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/423302"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Altering the normal association between touch and its visual correlate can result in the illusory perception of a fake limb as part of our own body. Thus, when touch is seen to be applied to a rubber hand while felt synchronously on the corresponding hidden real hand, an illusion of ownership of the rubber hand usually occurs. The illusion has also been demonstrated using visuomotor correlation between the movements of the hidden real hand and the seen fake hand. This type of paradigm has been used with respect to the whole body generating out-of-the-body and body substitution illusions. However, such studies have only ever manipulated a single factor and although they used a form of virtual reality have not exploited the power of immersive virtual reality (IVR) to produce radical transformations in body ownership.</p><h3>Principal Findings</h3><p>Here we show that a first person perspective of a life-sized virtual human female body that appears to substitute the male subjects' own bodies was sufficient to generate a body transfer illusion. This was demonstrated subjectively by questionnaire and physiologically through heart-rate deceleration in response to a threat to the virtual body. This finding is in contrast to earlier experimental studies that assume visuotactile synchrony to be the critical contributory factor in ownership illusions. Our finding was possible because IVR allowed us to use a novel experimental design for this type of problem with three independent binary factors: (i) perspective position (first or third), (ii) synchronous or asynchronous mirror reflections and (iii) synchrony or asynchrony between felt and seen touch.</p><h3>Conclusions</h3><p>The results support the notion that bottom-up perceptual mechanisms can temporarily override top down knowledge resulting in a radical illusion of transfer of body ownership. The research also illustrates immersive virtual reality as a powerful tool in the study of body representation and experience, since it supports experimental manipulations that would otherwise be infeasible, with the technology being mature enough to represent human bodies and their motion.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>143572, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/First_Person_Experience_of_Body_Transfer_in_Virtual_Reality/143572", "title"=>"First Person Experience of Body Transfer in Virtual Reality", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:59:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850240"], "description"=>"<p>The scene that the participants entered was a room approximately the same size as the real room in which they were located. (A) There were two female characters at the other end of the room, a standing woman who could be seen stroking the shoulder of a seated girl, and a fireplace behind. (B) Looking down at himself a participant would see an empty chair. (C) To the participant's left was a TV showing a real-time music video. (D) To the right were a mirror frame and a door opening to a field.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "computer science/applications", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience"], "article_id"=>520699, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_scene_/520699", "title"=>"The scene.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:11:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850414"], "description"=>"<p>(A) In the 1PP condition their body was substituted by that of the girl's (white shirt), and when looking down at themselves they would see her body. (B) Looking up they would now see that the woman (brown sweater) was standing by them. (C) The woman stroked their shoulder. (D) Looking left they would see the reflection of the girl and the woman in a mirror. (E) They were seeing the room and hearing the sounds from the TV from the perspective of the opposite side than in the first two minutes. (F) In the 3PP condition they would be located to the right of the girl, and so see her and her reflection in the mirror – in the case shown with her head moves synchronized with their own head moves. (G) Later the viewpoint shifted near to the ceiling and the woman continued to stroke the shoulder of the girl, but the participant did not feel this. (H) Suddenly the woman struck the girl three times around the face - the wide-field-of-view in this image corresponds more precisely to what the subject would have seen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transferred"], "article_id"=>520874, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Participants_were_transferred_to_the_other_side_of_the_room_/520874", "title"=>"Participants were transferred to the other side of the room.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:14:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850587"], "description"=>"<p>(A–C) show the means and standard errors of the questionnaire responses by each of P, M and T. Using proportional-odds cumulative logit models the notable significance levels are for P (<i>body</i>, p = 0.031; <i>touch</i>, 0.023; <i>woman</i>, 0.033; <i>cloth</i>, 0.003; <i>hurt</i>, 0.046), and T (<i>body</i>, p = 0.095; <i>touch</i>, 0.085; <i>woman</i>, 0.024). The model fits were good, with the highest deviance being 29.8 on 25 d.f. Panel (D) shows the estimated probabilities for the questionnaire responses for <i>body</i>, for four cases: for third person (P3, disembodiment) and for asynchronous (TS′) and with synchronous touch (TS), and for first person (P1, embodiment) again comparing TS′ with TS. In each case M = MS (the graph is almost identical for M = MS′). There were no scores of 10 in these responses which accounts for the low estimated probability of ‘Very High’.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses"], "article_id"=>521059, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Questionnaire_responses_for_the_main_effects_/521059", "title"=>"Questionnaire responses for the main effects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:17:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850654"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows the means and standard errors for HRD after four events: <i>across</i>: 0.5s after initially arriving at the other side of the room; <i>down</i>: 0.5s after descending from above; <i>beforeS</i>: 7s before the slap; <i>duringS</i>: 2s into the slap sequence. 1PP was significantly greater than 3PP on <i>down</i> (0.028) and <i>duringS</i> (0.034). The ANOVA fits satisfied the requirement of normally distributed residual errors using the Jarque-Bera test <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564#pone.0010564-Jarque1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>, except for 1PP on <i>down</i>, where a variable transformation was found to obtain normality.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["errors", "deceleration"], "article_id"=>521114, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_and_standard_errors_of_the_Heart_Rate_Deceleration_data_/521114", "title"=>"Means and standard errors of the Heart Rate Deceleration data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:18:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850715"], "description"=>"<p>Correlations Between Questionnaire Responses and Heart Rate Deceleration (significance levels in brackets).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses", "deceleration", "levels"], "article_id"=>521172, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_Between_Questionnaire_Responses_and_Heart_Rate_Deceleration_significance_levels_in_brackets_/521172", "title"=>"Correlations Between Questionnaire Responses and Heart Rate Deceleration (significance levels in brackets).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:19:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850748"], "description"=>"<p>Significance Levels of Analysis of Variance of Questionnaire Responses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels", "variance"], "article_id"=>521211, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significance_Levels_of_Analysis_of_Variance_of_Questionnaire_Responses_/521211", "title"=>"Significance Levels of Analysis of Variance of Questionnaire Responses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:20:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850772"], "description"=>"<p>*The event <i>beforeS</i> (before slap) was taken as 7s before the actual slap.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["events"], "article_id"=>521233, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sequence_of_the_Events_During_the_Experiment_/521233", "title"=>"Sequence of the Events During the Experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:20:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850800"], "description"=>"<p>Questions relating to body ownership and their labels used in the text and figures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relating", "labels"], "article_id"=>521265, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Questions_relating_to_body_ownership_and_their_labels_used_in_the_text_and_figures_/521265", "title"=>"Questions relating to body ownership and their labels used in the text and figures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:21:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/850842"], "description"=>"<p>For example subject 1 was allocated to the condition P′, M, T′; subject 9 to the condition P′, M, T.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "computer science/applications", "neuroscience/cognitive neuroscience"], "article_id"=>521296, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Mel Slater", "Bernhard Spanlang", "Maria V. Sanchez-Vives", "Olaf Blanke"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010564.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Allocation_of_Participants_to_the_Experimental_Factors_/521296", "title"=>"Allocation of Participants to the Experimental Factors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-05-12 00:21:36"}

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