Dynamics of Wind Setdown at Suez and the Eastern Nile Delta
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{"title"=>"Dynamics of wind setdown at Suez and the eastern Nile delta", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Carl", "last_name"=>"Drews", "scopus_author_id"=>"55126707400"}, {"first_name"=>"Weiqing", "last_name"=>"Han", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401900092"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77957931292", "isbn"=>"0001407104", "pmid"=>"20827299", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"77957931292", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0012481", "pui"=>"359771489"}, "id"=>"7ae60e79-978e-3479-a109-2d33888e0025", "abstract"=>"Wind setdown is the drop in water level caused by wind stress acting on the surface of a body of water for an extended period of time. As the wind blows, water recedes from the upwind shore and exposes terrain that was formerly underwater. Previous researchers have suggested wind setdown as a possible hydrodynamic explanation for Moses crossing the Red Sea, as described in Exodus 14.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dynamics-wind-setdown-suez-eastern-nile-delta", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/834046"], "description"=>"<p>The duration of the dry passage at Kedua depends on the wind strength, with stronger winds producing a longer exposure time. The Coriolis force extends the crossing time by 18 minutes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["experiments", "conducted"], "article_id"=>504416, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ROMS_experiments_conducted_on_the_Lake_of_Tanis_/504416", "title"=>"ROMS experiments conducted on the Lake of Tanis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:13:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833692"], "description"=>"<p>Green represents land surface, white represents shallow lagoons, and brown represents exposed mud flats. Note the Pelusiac jet, a stream of shallow water extending toward the West from the Pelusiac mouth. Only the extreme eastern end of Lake of Tanis (shown here) becomes dry; the central portion remains wet, and the western end overflows the shoreline. The ‘x’ shows the location of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 9</a>. Color scales are in meters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["roms", "12"], "article_id"=>504068, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_ROMS_solution_experiment_T1_after_12_hours_from_point_B_to_Kedua_/504068", "title"=>"The ROMS solution (experiment T1) after 12 hours, from point B to Kedua.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:07:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833595"], "description"=>"<p>Green represents land surface, white and blue represent water, and brown represents exposed lake bottom. Wind blows from the right at 28 m/s for 12 hours, and wind stress is uniform over the entire domain. The channel is originally 2 m deep and the banks are 1 m high; this bathymetry is comparable to lakes and rivers in the Nile delta during the spring.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["idealized", "angular"], "article_id"=>503974, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_idealized_angular_bend_of_water_in_the_Lake_of_Tanis_/503974", "title"=>"An idealized angular bend of water in the Lake of Tanis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:06:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/834074"], "description"=>"<p>Coordinates for locating and mapping the important sites for this research.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["locating", "sites"], "article_id"=>504455, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coordinates_for_locating_and_mapping_the_important_sites_for_this_research_/504455", "title"=>"Coordinates for locating and mapping the important sites for this research.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:14:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833914"], "description"=>"<p>The wind ceases at 12:00 hours, and the return wave inundates the exposed mud flats. The initial surge through the Kedua Gap is from South to North (a); the following surge is from West to East (b). For clarity, only 1/10 of the flow vectors are shown in each horizontal dimension. Color scales are in meters. Place names are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g008\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 8</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vectors"], "article_id"=>504298, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Current_vectors_at_15_00_and_19_00_hours_/504298", "title"=>"Current vectors at 15:00 and 19:00 hours.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:11:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833074"], "description"=>"<p>This map is outlined as a solid rectangle in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. We analyze the gap where the paleolagoon opens to the North at Kedua. This diagram draws from the following sources: Hoffmeier's <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5 </a><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-Hoffmeier1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>, Rennell <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-Rennell1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>, Sneh and Weissbrod <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-Sneh1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>, Moshier & El-Kalani <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-Moshier1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>, Google Earth <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-Google1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>, SRTM3 data <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-United1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, and Kitchen <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-Kitchen1\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a> Figure 28.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["geography"], "article_id"=>503453, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reconstruction_of_the_geography_Southwest_of_Pelusium_/503453", "title"=>"Reconstruction of the geography Southwest of Pelusium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 00:57:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833288"], "description"=>"<p>Green represents land surface, and blue-white represents shallow lagoons. The modern Lake Manzala has been extended eastward to reach Pelusium and form the ancient Lake of Tanis. The Pelusiac branch of the Nile has also been restored. The dashed rectangle shows the outline of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g008\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 8</a>. Bathymetry is given in section 2.2. Color scales are in meters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["egyptian"], "article_id"=>503662, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Geography_during_the_Egyptian_New_Kingdom_after_terrain_modifications_/503662", "title"=>"Geography during the Egyptian New Kingdom after terrain modifications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/414848"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>Wind setdown is the drop in water level caused by wind stress acting on the surface of a body of water for an extended period of time. As the wind blows, water recedes from the upwind shore and exposes terrain that was formerly underwater. Previous researchers have suggested wind setdown as a possible hydrodynamic explanation for Moses crossing the Red Sea, as described in Exodus 14.</p><h3>Methodology/Principal Findings</h3><p>This study analyzes the hydrodynamic mechanism proposed by earlier studies, focusing on the time needed to reach a steady-state solution. In addition, the authors investigate a site in the eastern Nile delta, where the ancient Pelusiac branch of the Nile once flowed into a coastal lagoon then known as the Lake of Tanis. We conduct a satellite and modeling survey to analyze this location, using geological evidence of the ancient bathymetry and a historical description of a strong wind event in 1882. A suite of model experiments are performed to demonstrate a new hydrodynamic mechanism that can cause an angular body of water to divide under wind stress, and to test the behavior of our study location and reconstructed topography.</p><h3>Conclusions/Significance</h3><p>Under a uniform 28 m/s easterly wind forcing in the reconstructed model basin, the ocean model produces an area of exposed mud flats where the river mouth opens into the lake. This land bridge is 3–4 km long and 5 km wide, and it remains open for 4 hours. Model results indicate that navigation in shallow-water harbors can be significantly curtailed by wind setdown when strong winds blow offshore.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["setdown", "suez", "nile", "delta"], "article_id"=>141903, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Dynamics_of_Wind_Setdown_at_Suez_and_the_Eastern_Nile_Delta/141903", "title"=>"Dynamics of Wind Setdown at Suez and the Eastern Nile Delta", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 00:31:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832938"], "description"=>"<p>Our study location is on the right side of the figure (solid rectangle: 30.8°–31.2° North, 32.2°–32.6° East), from Sethrum to a point between Pelusium and Magdolum, where the Lake of Tanis and the Pelusiac branch of the Nile come together. The solid rectangle also shows the outline of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstruction", "nile", "delta"], "article_id"=>503314, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_James_Rennell_s_reconstruction_of_the_Nile_delta_according_to_Herodotus_/503314", "title"=>"James Rennell's reconstruction of the Nile delta according to Herodotus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 00:55:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833545"], "description"=>"<p>The time series is taken at the raised portion of the reef proper (Point A in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>), and at the deeper “notch” in the reef. In experiment R4 the reef becomes dry at 2 m below sea level at 10 hours, and remains dry until the wind ceases at 24 hours. The water level in the notch drops at nearly the same rate, but does not ever reach its “fully dry” level of 3 m below sea level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["levels"], "article_id"=>503923, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_series_of_water_levels_at_the_reef_/503923", "title"=>"Time series of water levels at the reef.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:05:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833816"], "description"=>"<p>The time series is taken midway between point B and Kedua (at ‘x’ in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g008\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 8</a>). The upper solid blue line represents the currents, and the lower solid red line represents the water level. The wind stress is constant from 0 to 12 hours, producing dry ground with no current in this particular grid cell after 6 hours. At 12 hours the wind drops to zero and the water surges back into this grid cell 1 hour later. Part (a) represents the West-East u-current, and (b) represents the South-North v-current. The returning wave flows from West to East in (a), and varies in direction in (b). The dotted black line represents the difference in height of the water surface for two grid points in the Kedua Gap, 86 m apart in the current direction; the vertical scale in meters is on the right. The difference in surface height has been calculated as (West - East) and (South - North) so that the plot may be compared visually with the current.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["currents", "kedua"], "article_id"=>504196, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_series_of_water_level_and_currents_within_the_Kedua_passage_/504196", "title"=>"Time series of water level and currents within the Kedua passage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:09:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/832821"], "description"=>"<p>The reef at 29.88° North latitude is not of uniform depth today, but contains several deeper “notches” that were present before the Suez Canal was built <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-VonPetermann1\" target=\"_blank\">[40]</a>. Here we use a single notch to demonstrate how variations in the reef depth may delay the crossing. Point A on the raised portion of the reef is used to compare with the notch (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 5</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g006\" target=\"_blank\">6</a>). The wind blows from the Northwest, as studied by Nof and Paldor <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-Nof2\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a> and Voltzinger and Androsov <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-Voltzinger1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["idealized", "gulf"], "article_id"=>503194, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_idealized_Gulf_of_Suez_/503194", "title"=>"Map of the idealized Gulf of Suez.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 00:53:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/834023"], "description"=>"<p>Wind is from the Northwest, aligned with the primary axis of the Gulf of Suez. The reef varies in depth from 2 to 3 m. The reef exposure time depends on the wind stress and the reef bathymetry. The lower notch in the reef never becomes exposed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["experiments", "conducted", "suez", "basin", "underwater"], "article_id"=>504394, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ROMS_experiments_conducted_in_the_Suez_basin_with_an_underwater_reef_/504394", "title"=>"ROMS experiments conducted in the Suez basin with an underwater reef.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:13:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/833398"], "description"=>"<p>The cross section is taken from left to right at Point A in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone-0012481-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. The dotted horizontal red line represents the original sea level (depth = 0). The upper and lower solid blue lines represent the sea surface and sea bottom, respectively. The dashed green line represents the notch. Wind at 33 m/s blows from the left, representing a northwesterly wind as in Nof and Paldor <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481#pone.0012481-Nof1\" target=\"_blank\">[2]</a>. The water has uniform potential temperature, salinity and thus density. The raised portion of the reef (Point A) emerges above sea level from 10 through 24 hours of our model integration to provide a partially dry crossing. The 3 m deep notch, however, remains below sea level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["currents", "reef"], "article_id"=>503774, "categories"=>["Marine Biology"], "users"=>["Carl Drews", "Weiqing Han"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012481.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cross_section_of_currents_in_the_Reef_test_case_R4_/503774", "title"=>"Cross section of currents in the Reef test case R4.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-08-30 01:02:54"}

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