Species Diversity and Distribution Patterns of the Ants of Amazonian Ecuador
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{"title"=>"Species Diversity and Distribution Patterns of the Ants of Amazonian Ecuador", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kari T.", "last_name"=>"Ryder Wilkie"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy L.", "last_name"=>"Mertl"}, {"first_name"=>"James F. A.", "last_name"=>"Traniello"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"359856598", "sgr"=>"78049247555", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"20957208", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0013146"}, "id"=>"c7f36ace-789c-3d75-96ed-12d26b015457", "abstract"=>"Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth. Although their species richness appears to be greatest in the New World tropics, global patterns of ant diversity and distribution are not well understood. We comprehensively surveyed ant diversity in a lowland primary rainforest in Western Amazonia, Ecuador using canopy fogging, pitfall traps, baits, hand collecting, mini-Winkler devices and subterranean probes to sample ants. A total of 489 ant species comprising 64 genera in nine subfamilies were identified from samples collected in only 0.16 square kilometers. The most species-rich genera were Camponotus, Pheidole, Pseudomyrmex, Pachycondyla, Brachymyrmex, and Crematogaster. Camponotus and Pseudomyrmex were most diverse in the canopy, while Pheidole was most diverse on the ground. The three most abundant ground-dwelling ant genera were Pheidole, Solenopsis and Pyramica. Crematogaster carinata was the most abundant ant species in the canopy; Wasmannia auropunctata was most abundant on the ground, and the army ant Labidus coecus was the most abundant subterranean species. Ant species composition among strata was significantly different: 80% of species were found in only one stratum, 17% in two strata, and 3% in all three strata. Elevation and the number of logs and twigs available as nest sites were significant predictors of ground-dwelling ant species richness. Canopy species richness was not correlated with any ecological variable measured. Subterranean species richness was negatively correlated with depth in the soil. When ant species were categorized using a functional group matrix based on diet, nest-site preference and foraging ecology, the greatest diversity was found in Omnivorous Canopy Nesters. Our study indicates ant species richness is exceptionally high at Tiputini. We project 647-736 ant species in this global hotspot of biodiversity. Considering the relatively small area surveyed, this region of western Amazonia appears to support the most diverse ant fauna yet recorded.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/species-diversity-distribution-patterns-ants-amazonian-ecuador-5", "reader_count"=>140, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>21, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>108, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>108}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>21}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Ecuador"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "Brazil"=>8, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827531"], "description"=>"<p>p values reflect the significance of each variable as a predictor of species richness for each genus. Significant predictors shown in bold type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "abundant", "ground-dwelling", "ant"], "article_id"=>497901, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Environmental_variation_and_species_richness_for_the_three_most_abundant_ground_dwelling_ant_genera_/497901", "title"=>"Environmental variation and species richness for the three most abundant ground-dwelling ant genera.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:11:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827127"], "description"=>"<p>R<sup>2</sup> = 0.56, n = 60, p<0.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elevation", "ground-dwelling", "ant"], "article_id"=>497498, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_elevation_on_ground_dwelling_ant_species_richness_/497498", "title"=>"Effect of elevation on ground-dwelling ant species richness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:04:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827414"], "description"=>"<p>Black lines indicate canopy fogging sample transects of Dr. T. Erwin; red lines indicate transects (ground and subterranean) of present study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sampling"], "article_id"=>497786, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_sampling_transects_/497786", "title"=>"Map of sampling transects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:09:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827490"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated proportion of the potential species richness sampled by each collection method within each of the three strata.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "sampled"], "article_id"=>497863, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_proportion_of_the_potential_species_richness_sampled_by_each_collection_method_within_each_of_the_three_strata_/497863", "title"=>"Estimated proportion of the potential species richness sampled by each collection method within each of the three strata.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:11:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411772", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411799", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411807", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/411873"], "description"=>"<div><p>Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth. Although their species richness appears to be greatest in the New World tropics, global patterns of ant diversity and distribution are not well understood. We comprehensively surveyed ant diversity in a lowland primary rainforest in Western Amazonia, Ecuador using canopy fogging, pitfall traps, baits, hand collecting, mini-Winkler devices and subterranean probes to sample ants. A total of 489 ant species comprising 64 genera in nine subfamilies were identified from samples collected in only 0.16 square kilometers. The most species-rich genera were <em>Camponotus</em>, <em>Pheidole</em>, <em>Pseudomyrmex</em>, <em>Pachycondyla</em>, <em>Brachymyrmex</em>, and <em>Crematogaster</em>. <em>Camponotus</em> and <em>Pseudomyrmex</em> were most diverse in the canopy, while <em>Pheidole</em> was most diverse on the ground. The three most abundant ground-dwelling ant genera were <em>Pheidole</em>, <em>Solenopsis</em> and <em>Pyramica</em>. <em>Crematogaster carinata</em> was the most abundant ant species in the canopy; <em>Wasmannia auropunctata</em> was most abundant on the ground, and the army ant <em>Labidus coecus</em> was the most abundant subterranean species. Ant species composition among strata was significantly different: 80% of species were found in only one stratum, 17% in two strata, and 3% in all three strata. Elevation and the number of logs and twigs available as nest sites were significant predictors of ground-dwelling ant species richness. Canopy species richness was not correlated with any ecological variable measured. Subterranean species richness was negatively correlated with depth in the soil. When ant species were categorized using a functional group matrix based on diet, nest-site preference and foraging ecology, the greatest diversity was found in Omnivorous Canopy Nesters. Our study indicates ant species richness is exceptionally high at Tiputini. We project 647–736 ant species in this global hotspot of biodiversity. Considering the relatively small area surveyed, this region of western Amazonia appears to support the most diverse ant fauna yet recorded.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "ants", "amazonian", "ecuador"], "article_id"=>141333, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>77, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Species_Diversity_and_Distribution_Patterns_of_the_Ants_of_Amazonian_Ecuador/141333", "title"=>"Species Diversity and Distribution Patterns of the Ants of Amazonian Ecuador", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 00:22:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827239"], "description"=>"<p>R<sup>2</sup> = 0.27, n = 60, p = 0.035.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["twigs", "logs", "ground-dwelling", "ant"], "article_id"=>497607, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_number_of_twigs_and_logs_on_ground_dwelling_ant_species_richness_/497607", "title"=>"Effect of number of twigs and logs on ground-dwelling ant species richness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:06:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827558"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (standard deviation) and range for 60 transect sample sites are shown. p values reflect the significance of each variable as a predictor of ground-dwelling ant species richness. Analysis by a linear multiple regression model. Significant predictors are shown in bold type.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ant"], "article_id"=>497933, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Environmental_variation_and_ant_species_richness_/497933", "title"=>"Environmental variation and ant species richness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:12:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826925"], "description"=>"<p>Top 7 genera in each stratum showed, in terms of abundance ( = number of occurrences).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals"], "article_id"=>497293, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abundance_of_individuals_by_genus_/497293", "title"=>"Abundance of individuals by genus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:01:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826842"], "description"=>"<p>Each symbol represents a single collection sample. Rare species (singletons) were removed prior to analysis, leaving 194 species remaining.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["multidimensional", "scaling", "differentiating", "canopy", "subterranean"], "article_id"=>497209, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Non_metric_multidimensional_scaling_Raup_Crick_distance_measure_differentiating_canopy_green_ground_brown_and_subterranean_yellow_species_/497209", "title"=>"Non-metric multidimensional scaling (Raup-Crick distance measure) differentiating canopy (green), ground (brown), and subterranean (yellow) species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:00:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827314"], "description"=>"<p>Functional group distribution.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "ecology/community ecology and biodiversity", "ecology/conservation and restoration ecology"], "article_id"=>497686, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Functional_group_distribution_/497686", "title"=>"Functional group distribution.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:08:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/826739"], "description"=>"<p>Mao Tau method, 100 replicates; EstimateS 8.0, Colwell 2005.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "accumulation", "methods"], "article_id"=>497107, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_rates_of_species_accumulation_for_each_of_six_collection_methods_used_/497107", "title"=>"Comparison of the rates of species accumulation for each of six collection methods used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 01:58:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/827033"], "description"=>"<p>Top 10 species in each stratum showed, in terms of abundance ( = number of occurrences).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals"], "article_id"=>497407, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Kari T. Ryder Wilkie", "Amy L. Mertl", "James F. A. Traniello"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0013146.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abundance_of_individuals_by_species_/497407", "title"=>"Abundance of individuals by species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-10-01 02:03:27"}

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Relative Metric

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