Hidden Diversity Behind the Zombie-Ant Fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: Four New Species Described from Carpenter Ants in Minas Gerais, Brazil
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{"title"=>"Hidden diversity behind the zombie-ant fungus ophiocordyceps unilateralis: Four new species described from carpenter ants in Minas Gerais, Brazil", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Harry C.", "last_name"=>"Evans", "scopus_author_id"=>"56225155800"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon L.", "last_name"=>"Elliot", "scopus_author_id"=>"23970232400"}, {"first_name"=>"David P.", "last_name"=>"Hughes", "scopus_author_id"=>"24593705500"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"361382254", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"21399679", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0017024", "sgr"=>"79952297510", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952297510"}, "id"=>"79473df9-432d-3df6-b543-e4f9aa4f5763", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Clavicipitaceae: Hypocreales) is a fungal pathogen specific to ants of the tribe Camponotini (Formicinae: Formicidae) with a pantropical distribution. This so-called zombie or brain-manipulating fungus alters the behaviour of the ant host, causing it to die in an exposed position, typically clinging onto and biting into the adaxial surface of shrub leaves. We (HCE and DPH) are currently undertaking a worldwide survey to assess the taxonomy and ecology of this highly variable species.\\n\\nMETHODS: We formally describe and name four new species belonging to the O. unilateralis species complex collected from remnant Atlantic rainforest in the south-eastern region (Zona da Mata) of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fully illustrated descriptions of both the asexual (anamorph) and sexual (teleomorph) stages are provided for each species. The new names are registered in Index Fungorum (registration.indexfungorum.org) and have received IF numbers. This paper is also a test case for the electronic publication of new names in mycology.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: We are only just beginning to understand the taxonomy and ecology of the Ophiocordyceps unilateralis species complex associated with carpenter ants; macroscopically characterised by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region of the ant host on which the anamorph occupies the terminal region and the teleomorph occurs as lateral cushions or plates. Each of the four ant species collected--Camponotus rufipes, C. balzani, C. melanoticus and C. novogranadensis--is attacked by a distinct species of Ophiocordyceps readily separated using traditional micromorphology. The new taxa are named according to their ant host.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/hidden-diversity-behind-zombieant-fungus-ophiocordyceps-unilateralis-four-new-species-described-carp", "reader_count"=>224, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>53, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>33, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>43, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>53, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>33, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>43, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>160, "Philosophy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>6, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>17, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>17}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>160}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>7, "Japan"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Switzerland"=>3, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Austria"=>2, "China"=>2, "Brazil"=>12, "Denmark"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Germany"=>4}, "group_count"=>8}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/794068"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>) Section of upper part of stroma showing anamorph (<i>Hirsutella</i> A-type), with a palisade of phialides, subulate at the base and tapering to a needle-like neck producing narrowly limoniform conidia (bar  = 10 µm); <b>b</b>) Ascospores newly released onto agar, distinctly vermiform in shape (bar  = 15 µm); <b>c</b>) Ascospore germinating after 24 h on agar, with a needle-like outgrowth (capilliconidiophore) producing a terminal conidium with prominent cap (bar  = 10 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology"], "article_id"=>464443, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Harry C. Evans", "Simon L. Elliot", "David P. Hughes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ophiocordyceps_camponoti_rufipedis_/464443", "title"=>"<i>Ophiocordyceps camponoti-rufipedis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:10:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/794951"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>) Anamorph (<i>Hirsutella</i> B-type) showing detail of conidiogenesis (bar  = 15 µm), and biguttulate conidia (<b>b</b>, bar  = 10 µm); <b>c</b>) Asci with small but prominent caps (bar  = 10 µm). <b>d</b>) Ascospore after 48 h on agar producing four capilliconidiophores (bar  = 10 µm); <b>e</b>) Filiform ascospore (bar  = 5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology"], "article_id"=>465323, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Harry C. Evans", "Simon L. Elliot", "David P. Hughes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>70, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ophiocordyceps_camponoti_novogranadensis_/465323", "title"=>"<i>Ophiocordyceps camponoti-novogranadensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:15:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/795129"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of main morphological characters of new <i>Ophiocordyceps</i> species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["morphological", "characters"], "article_id"=>465507, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Harry C. Evans", "Simon L. Elliot", "David P. Hughes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_main_morphological_characters_of_new_Ophiocordyceps_species_/465507", "title"=>"Comparison of main morphological characters of new <i>Ophiocordyceps</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:16:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/794726"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>) Infected <i>Camponotus novogranadensis</i> biting into a lichen epiphyte with anamorph synnemata (<i>Hirsutella</i> B-type) arising from feet (bar  = 0.3 mm), and highlighted in <b>b</b>) and <b>c</b>) (bar  = 0.4 mm); <b>d</b>) Section through ascomatal cushion (bar  = 100 µm); <b>e</b>) Ascomatal cushions with white masses of discharged ascospores (bar  = 0.3 mm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology"], "article_id"=>465105, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Harry C. Evans", "Simon L. Elliot", "David P. Hughes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ophiocordyceps_camponoti_novogranadensis_/465105", "title"=>"<i>Ophiocordyceps camponoti-novogranadensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:13:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/793856"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>) Single stroma, characteristic of <i>Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato</i>, with two lateral ascomatal cushions or plates arising from the dorsal pronotum of <i>Camponotus rufipes</i> (the red-legged ant), firmly attached to a leaf vein (bar  = 0.8 mm); <b>b</b>) Detail of fertile region showing the immersed to partially erumpent ascomata within the cushions, with the short necks or ostioles visible (bar  = 0.4 mm); <b>c</b>) Section through an ascomatal cushion showing the mainly immersed arrangement of ascomata (bar  = 150 µm), and detail of asci within chamber (<b>d</b>, bar  = 25 µm); <b>e</b>) Asci, clavate in shape and with prominent refractive cap (arrow, bar  = 7.5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology"], "article_id"=>464226, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Harry C. Evans", "Simon L. Elliot", "David P. Hughes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ophiocordyceps_camponoti_rufipedis_/464226", "title"=>"<i>Ophiocordyceps camponoti-rufipedis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/793671"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>) Original plate from the 1865 <i>Selecta Fungorum Carpologia</i> of the Tulasne brothers <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024#pone.0017024-Tulasne1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>, illustrating the holotype of <i>Ophiocordyceps</i> (<i>Torrubia</i>) <i>unilateralis</i> and said to be on the leaf-cutting ant, <i>Atta cephalotes</i>; <b>b</b>) Detail from plate showing the distinctive pronotal plate of <i>Camponotus sericeiventris</i>, as well as a side view of the host which is clearly a carpenter ant and not a leaf-cutter; compare with <b>c</b>) Live worker of <i>C. sericeiventris</i> showing the spines on the pronotal plate (arrow).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology"], "article_id"=>464047, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Harry C. Evans", "Simon L. Elliot", "David P. Hughes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ophiocordyceps_unilateralis_/464047", "title"=>"<i>Ophiocordyceps unilateralis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:07:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/794280"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>) Stroma of <i>Ophiocordyceps</i> on <i>Camponotus balzani</i> (bar  = 1 mm); <b>b</b>) Detail of semi-erumpent ascomata with prominent ostioles (bar  = 0.4 mm); <b>c</b>) Section through cushion showing arrangement and semi-erumpent nature of ascomata (bar  = 150 µm); <b>d</b>) Close-ups from <b>a</b>) of mycelial cushions (sporodochia) on legs and antennae (bar  = 0.2 mm), showing <i>Hirsutella</i> C-type phialides (<b>e</b>, bar  = 10 µm) and apical conidia (<b>f</b>, bar  = 5.0 µm); <b>g</b>) Section through ascoma showing prominent ostiole and ascus tips with refractive caps (bar  = 30 µm); <b>h</b>) Ascospore, broadly cylindrical, large and multiseptate (bar  = 12.5 µm, compare with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024#pone-0017024-g003\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Fig. 3b</b></a>); <b>i</b>) Ascospore after one month on agar, slightly swollen and producing a lateral swelling, probably a vestigial appressorium (bar  = 12.5 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology"], "article_id"=>464654, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Harry C. Evans", "Simon L. Elliot", "David P. Hughes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ophiocordyceps_camponoti_balzani_/464654", "title"=>"<i>Ophiocordyceps camponoti-balzani</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:11:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/794503"], "description"=>"<p><b>a</b>) <i>Camponotus melanoticus</i> biting into a leaf, the upper part of the stroma is forked, probably due to damage during growth (bar  = 1 mm); <b>b</b>) Detail of ascomatal cushion showing semi-erumpent ascomata with prominent ostioles (bar  = 0.25 mm); <b>c</b>) Section through cushion (bar  = 200 µm), with detail of ostiolar region (<b>d</b>, bar  = 75 µm); <b>e</b>) Ascospores released from ascomata (bar  = 25 µm), and <b>f</b>) Ascospore after one month on agar showing solitary phialide (<i>Hirsutella</i> A-type, bar  = 10 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology", "ecology"], "article_id"=>464875, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Harry C. Evans", "Simon L. Elliot", "David P. Hughes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017024.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ophiocordyceps_camponoti_melanotici_/464875", "title"=>"<i>Ophiocordyceps camponoti-melanotici</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 20:12:44"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

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