Towards a Synthetic Chloroplast
Publication Date
April 20, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Christina M. Agapakis, Henrike Niederholtmeyer, Ramil R. Noche, Tami D. Lieberman, et al
Volume
6
Issue
4
Pages
e18877
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018877
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0018877
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21533097
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3080389
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21533097
Web of Science
000289719400032
Scopus
79955407461
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/towards-synthetic-chloroplast
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/781405"], "description"=>"<p>A.) Direct microinjection of <i>S. elongatus</i> into zebrafish embryos allow exploration of <i>in vivo</i> dynamics of bacteria inside animal cells. B.) Invasion of mammalian cells through heterologous expression of invasin and listeriolysin O. C.) Phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages. Bacteria subsequently escape from the endosomal compartment through expression of listeriolysin O.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["paths", "endosymbiosis"], "article_id"=>451761, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Christina M. Agapakis", "Henrike Niederholtmeyer", "Ramil R. Noche", "Tami D. Lieberman", "Sean G. Megason", "Jeffrey C. Way", "Pamela A. Silver"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018877.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_paths_to_endosymbiosis_used_in_this_study_/451761", "title"=>"Three paths to endosymbiosis used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 18:59:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/781548"], "description"=>"<p>A.) Zebrafish embryo two hours after injection of <i>S. elongatus</i>. Cells appear red due to phenol red present in the injection buffer. B.) Injection of <i>E. coli</i> led to drastic morphological changes in the embryo after two hours, and this change was observed with <i>E. coli</i> cells that were C.) UV killed, or D.) ΔmsbB mutants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["embryos", "killed"], "article_id"=>451922, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Christina M. Agapakis", "Henrike Niederholtmeyer", "Ramil R. Noche", "Tami D. Lieberman", "Sean G. Megason", "Jeffrey C. Way", "Pamela A. Silver"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018877.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Zebrafish_embryos_are_immediately_killed_by_E_coli_/451922", "title"=>"Zebrafish embryos are immediately killed by <i>E. coli</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:00:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/781636"], "description"=>"<p>A.) <i>S. elongatus</i> engineered with invasin and listeriolysin are able to invade CHO cells at a higher efficiency than <i>S. elongatus</i> harboring the empty vector or invasin alone. Cells positive for red fluorescence were sorted by FACS and B.) observed under confocal microscopy, showing intracellular localization of at least one bacterial cell per CHO cell in the majority of the cells observed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cho"], "article_id"=>452004, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Christina M. Agapakis", "Henrike Niederholtmeyer", "Ramil R. Noche", "Tami D. Lieberman", "Sean G. Megason", "Jeffrey C. Way", "Pamela A. Silver"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018877.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Invasion_of_CHO_cells_/452004", "title"=>"Invasion of CHO cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:01:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/781712"], "description"=>"<p>Large scale granulation is observed when macrophages take up <i>E. coli</i> that is A.) not expressing llo and to an even greater extent with B.) <i>E. coli</i> expressing llo off of the inducible lac promoter of the pNS3 vector. In contrast, macrophages displayed similar morphology two days after infection with C.) empty vector <i>S. elongatus</i>, D.) <i>S. elongatus</i> expressing inv and llo, and E.) macrophages untreated with bacteria but maintained at 30°C in bright light for two days.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differential", "phagocytosed"], "article_id"=>452081, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Christina M. Agapakis", "Henrike Niederholtmeyer", "Ramil R. Noche", "Tami D. Lieberman", "Sean G. Megason", "Jeffrey C. Way", "Pamela A. Silver"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018877.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_E_coli_and_S_elongatus_lead_to_differential_effects_when_phagocytosed_by_macrophages_/452081", "title"=>"<i>E. coli</i> and <i>S. elongatus</i> lead to differential effects when phagocytosed by macrophages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:01:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/781860"], "description"=>"<p>A.) Time lapse microscopy of macrophages infected with +inv+llo <i>S. elongatus</i> kept in the dark shows the gradual decrease in red autofluorescence over the course of 12 hours. In contrast, when kept in the light, B.) empty vector <i>S. elongatus</i> autofluorescence is observed to gradually decrease over the course of several days (top row), while a significant increase in red <i>S. elongatus</i> autofluorescence was observed in macrophages infected with inv llo <i>S. elongatus</i> for two days post-infection (bottom row). This fluorescence was observed to decrease after the third day of infection. C.) This change in fluorescence over time can be quantified as a change in background subtracted mean fluorescence in ImageJ and averaged over triplicate experiments. Empty vector (blue line) and +inv+llo <i>S. elongatus</i> (red line) show marked differences in growth when infected at similar densities of 1–2 bacterial cells per macrophage. D.) +inv+llo <i>S. elongatus</i> displayed infection density dependent growth rates in macrophages. Each line shows change in mean fluorescence in cells infected at a single starting density, ranging in multiples of two from fewer than one cell per macrophage to approximately 4 bacteria per macrophage. E.) Macrophage cell counts were variable across replicates and over the course of the experiment but displayed no significant difference between macrophages infected with empty vector <i>S. elongatus</i> at low (green line) or high density (blue line), or +inv+llo <i>S. elongatus</i> at low (red line) or high (yellow line) density. F.) When infected at low density of fewer than one bacteria per macrophage, <i>S. elongatus</i> division was observed during 18 hour time-lapse fluorescent microscopy in approximately 1% of macrophages observed, in particular those cells that contained more than one bacterial cell due to stochastic fluctuations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macrophage"], "article_id"=>452233, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Christina M. Agapakis", "Henrike Niederholtmeyer", "Ramil R. Noche", "Tami D. Lieberman", "Sean G. Megason", "Jeffrey C. Way", "Pamela A. Silver"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018877.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_S_elongatus_can_grow_inside_the_macrophage_cytoplasm_/452233", "title"=>"<i>S. elongatus</i> can grow inside the macrophage cytoplasm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/781463"], "description"=>"<p>Single optical slice confocal microscopy images of the anterior of the zebrafish embryo at A.) Day 1 post injection, B.) Day 2, C.) Day 3, D.) Day 4, and dissecting microscope images of embryos E.) Day 8, F.) Day 12 post injection. Zebrafish cell membranes are outlined in green, with red autofluorescent bacteria visible in cells throughout the embryo, including the eye (yellow arrows) and brain (white arrows). Red autofluorescence gradually decreased over the course of experimental observations, but remained visible in the brain of the young zebrafish even after 12 days.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intracellular", "zebrafish"], "article_id"=>451836, "categories"=>["Molecular Biology", "Microbiology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Christina M. Agapakis", "Henrike Niederholtmeyer", "Ramil R. Noche", "Tami D. Lieberman", "Sean G. Megason", "Jeffrey C. Way", "Pamela A. Silver"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018877.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tracking_intracellular_S_elongatus_through_zebrafish_development_/451836", "title"=>"Tracking intracellular <i>S. elongatus</i> through zebrafish development.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 19:00:13"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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