Coordinated Movements Prevent Jamming in an Emperor Penguin Huddle
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{"title"=>"Coordinated movements prevent jamming in an emperor penguin huddle", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniel P.", "last_name"=>"Zitterbart", "scopus_author_id"=>"14826264400"}, {"first_name"=>"Barbara", "last_name"=>"Wienecke", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701713772"}, {"first_name"=>"James P.", "last_name"=>"Butler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403924940"}, {"first_name"=>"Ben", "last_name"=>"Fabry", "scopus_author_id"=>"57192109935"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"79957847288", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0020260", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79957847288", "pui"=>"361862757", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"21673816"}, "id"=>"37b04921-8031-3706-9c55-33e1a3e7f852", "abstract"=>"For Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), huddling is the key to survival during the Antarctic winter. Penguins in a huddle are packed so tightly that individual movements become impossible, reminiscent of a jamming transition in compacted colloids. It is crucial, however, that the huddle structure is continuously reorganized to give each penguin a chance to spend sufficient time inside the huddle, compared with time spent on the periphery. Here we show that Emperor penguins move collectively in a highly coordinated manner to ensure mobility while at the same time keeping the huddle packed. Every 30-60 seconds, all penguins make small steps that travel as a wave through the entire huddle. Over time, these small movements lead to large-scale reorganization of the huddle. Our data show that the dynamics of penguin huddling is governed by intermittency and approach to kinetic arrest in striking analogy with inert non-equilibrium systems, including soft glasses and colloids.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/coordinated-movements-prevent-jamming-emperor-penguin-huddle", "reader_count"=>84, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42, "Physics and Astronomy"=>18, "Psychology"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>18}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>42}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Latvia"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "United States"=>7, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Israel"=>1, "Australia"=>2, "Chile"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387112", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387404", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/387512"], "description"=>"<div><p>For Emperor penguins (<b><em>Aptenodytes forsteri</em></b>), huddling is the key to survival during the Antarctic winter. Penguins in a huddle are packed so tightly that individual movements become impossible, reminiscent of a jamming transition in compacted colloids. It is crucial, however, that the huddle structure is continuously reorganized to give each penguin a chance to spend sufficient time inside the huddle, compared with time spent on the periphery. Here we show that Emperor penguins move collectively in a highly coordinated manner to ensure mobility while at the same time keeping the huddle packed. Every 30–60 seconds, all penguins make small steps that travel as a wave through the entire huddle. Over time, these small movements lead to large-scale reorganization of the huddle. Our data show that the dynamics of penguin huddling is governed by intermittency and approach to kinetic arrest in striking analogy with inert non-equilibrium systems, including soft glasses and colloids.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coordinated", "movements", "jamming", "emperor", "penguin", "huddle"], "article_id"=>136437, "categories"=>["Physics", "Ecology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Daniel P. Zitterbart", "Barbara Wienecke", "James P. Butler", "Ben Fabry"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020260.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020260.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020260.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>91, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Coordinated_Movements_Prevent_Jamming_in_an_Emperor_Penguin_Huddle/136437", "title"=>"Coordinated Movements Prevent Jamming in an Emperor Penguin Huddle", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-06-01 01:47:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/770357"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Observed field of view of the emperor penguin colony. The image shows several huddles and individual penguins. The density of penguins in huddles is approximately 21 animals per square meter. (B) The penguins' yellow and white face patch was used to track individual animals. (C) Typical trajectory of a penguin during huddle movements. Motionless periods are interrupted by intermittent small steps that lead over time to a reorganization of the entire huddle. (D) Positions of penguins tracked over 4 hours show a collective huddle movement as indicated by red arrows (movies available online). (E) Trajectories from neighboring penguins with similar vertical (y) positions show correlated steps in the horizontal (x) direction. The speed of the propagating wave is indicated by the slope of the red line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["movements", "emperor", "penguin"], "article_id"=>440725, "categories"=>["Physics", "Ecology", "Biophysics"], "users"=>["Daniel P. Zitterbart", "Barbara Wienecke", "James P. Butler", "Ben Fabry"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020260.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coordinated_movements_in_an_emperor_penguin_huddle_/440725", "title"=>"Coordinated movements in an emperor penguin huddle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-06-01 00:12:05"}

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