Measuring Nepotism through Shared Last Names: The Case of Italian Academia
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{"title"=>"Measuring nepotism through shared last names: The case of Italian academia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stefano", "last_name"=>"Allesina", "scopus_author_id"=>"8574674400"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"arxiv"=>"arXiv:1208.5792v1", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"79961041282", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79961041282", "pmid"=>"21826195", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"362270497", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021160"}, "id"=>"49ee3082-b00e-3c48-ae91-951b46a826b5", "abstract"=>"Nepotistic practices are detrimental for academia. Here I show how disciplines with a high likelihood of nepotism can be detected using standard statistical techniques based on shared last names among professors. As an example, I analyze the set of all 61,340 Italian academics. I find that nepotism is prominent in Italy, with particular disciplinary sectors being detected as especially problematic. Out of 28 disciplines, 9 - accounting for more than half of Italian professors - display a significant paucity of last names. Moreover, in most disciplines a clear north-south trend emerges, with likelihood of nepotism increasing with latitude. Even accounting for the geographic clustering of last names, I find that for many disciplines the probability of name-sharing is boosted when professors work in the same institution or sub-discipline. Using these techniques policy makers can target cuts and funding in order to promote fair practices.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/measuring-nepotism-through-shared-last-names-case-italian-academia", "reader_count"=>102, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>6, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>6}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>6, "France"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Switzerland"=>3, "Spain"=>5}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/377354"], "description"=>"<div><p>Nepotistic practices are detrimental for academia. Here I show how disciplines with a high likelihood of nepotism can be detected using standard statistical techniques based on shared last names among professors. As an example, I analyze the set of all 61,340 Italian academics. I find that nepotism is prominent in Italy, with particular disciplinary sectors being detected as especially problematic. Out of 28 disciplines, 9 – accounting for more than half of Italian professors – display a significant paucity of last names. Moreover, in most disciplines a clear north-south trend emerges, with likelihood of nepotism increasing with latitude. Even accounting for the geographic clustering of last names, I find that for many disciplines the probability of name-sharing is boosted when professors work in the same institution or sub-discipline. Using these techniques policy makers can target cuts and funding in order to promote fair practices.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measuring", "nepotism", "italian", "academia"], "article_id"=>134561, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stefano Allesina"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021160", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>23, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Measuring_Nepotism_through_Shared_Last_Names_The_Case_of_Italian_Academia/134561", "title"=>"Measuring Nepotism through Shared Last Names: The Case of Italian Academia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-03 01:16:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749858"], "description"=>"<p>For each institution (84, as I excluded on-line Universities), I computed the frequency by dividing the number of pairs of professors sharing the last name by the total number of possible pairs. I arrange in a circle the institutions based in the same city (e.g., 9 Universities in Roma). Darker shades stand for higher frequencies. The frequency of last name-sharing for each institution is reported in Supplementary Table 7 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021160#pone.0021160.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Supporting Information S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["name-sharing", "italian"], "article_id"=>420234, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stefano Allesina"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021160.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_of_last_name_sharing_in_Italian_Universities_/420234", "title"=>"Frequency of last name-sharing in Italian Universities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-08-03 00:03:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/749953"], "description"=>"<p>For each macro-sector, I report the results from Monte Carlo simulations: number of researchers in the discipline (“People”), the number of distinct last names (“Names”), the expected number of last names (“Expected”), and the associated -value, measuring how probable it is to find an equal or lower number of names at random. I also report the results from the logistic regression models: effects and the statistical significance of geographic distance (“Distance”), sharing the same institution (“Institution”), sharing the same micro-sector (“Micro”) and the average latitude (“Latitude”) on the probability that two researcher in any discipline have the same name. Magnitude of the coefficients and probabilities are reported in the Supplementary Tables 3, 4, 5, 6 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0021160#pone.0021160.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Supporting Information S1</a>. Significance levels“***” (), “**” (), “*” (), NS (), NA (no data available for the coefficient).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nepotism"], "article_id"=>420335, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stefano Allesina"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021160.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Likelihood_of_nepotism_for_macro_sector_/420335", "title"=>"Likelihood of nepotism for macro-sector.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-08-03 00:05:35"}

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