The Rubber Hand Illusion: Feeling of Ownership and Proprioceptive Drift Do Not Go Hand in Hand
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{"title"=>"The rubber hand illusion: Feeling of ownership and proprioceptive drift Do not go hand in hand", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marieke", "last_name"=>"Rohde", "scopus_author_id"=>"13005737700"}, {"first_name"=>"Massimiliano", "last_name"=>"Luca", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004587933"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc O.", "last_name"=>"Ernst", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201640221"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"79959583292", "pui"=>"362022045", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0021659", "pmid"=>"21738756", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79959583292", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"c42e0c05-e520-362f-89ad-b1d7c03abfd2", "abstract"=>"In the Rubber Hand Illusion, the feeling of ownership of a rubber hand displaced from a participant's real occluded hand is evoked by synchronously stroking both hands with paintbrushes. A change of perceived finger location towards the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) has been reported to correlate with this illusion. To measure the time course of proprioceptive drift during the Rubber Hand Illusion, we regularly interrupted stroking (performed by robot arms) to measure perceived finger location. Measurements were made by projecting a probe dot into the field of view (using a semi-transparent mirror) and asking participants if the dot is to the left or to the right of their invisible hand (Experiment 1) or to adjust the position of the dot to that of their invisible hand (Experiment 2). We varied both the measurement frequency (every 10 s, 40 s, 120 s) and the mode of stroking (synchronous, asynchronous, just vision). Surprisingly, with frequent measurements, proprioceptive drift occurs not only in the synchronous stroking condition but also in the two control conditions (asynchronous stroking, just vision). Proprioceptive drift in the synchronous stroking condition is never higher than in the just vision condition. Only continuous exposure to asynchronous stroking prevents proprioceptive drift and thus replicates the differences in drift reported in the literature. By contrast, complementary subjective ratings (questionnaire) show that the feeling of ownership requires synchronous stroking and is not present in the asynchronous stroking condition. Thus, subjective ratings and drift are dissociated. We conclude that different mechanisms of multisensory integration are responsible for proprioceptive drift and the feeling of ownership. Proprioceptive drift relies on visuoproprioceptive integration alone, a process that is inhibited by asynchronous stroking, the most common control condition in Rubber Hand Illusion experiments. This dissociation implies that conclusions about feelings of ownership cannot be drawn from measuring proprioceptive drift alone.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/rubber-hand-illusion-feeling-ownership-proprioceptive-drift-not-go-hand-hand", "reader_count"=>254, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Researcher"=>51, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>69, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>33, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>32, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Researcher"=>51, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>69, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Student > Master"=>33, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>32, "Lecturer"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>5, "Professor"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Philosophy"=>6, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>17, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>21, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>15, "Neuroscience"=>17, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>133, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>15}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>133}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>21}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>17}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>17}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>5, "Japan"=>7, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Switzerland"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>2, "Belgium"=>1, "China"=>1, "Taiwan"=>1, "Italy"=>3, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>7}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760938"], "description"=>"<p>Perceived finger position relative to pre-test at the end of the block for the 1×120 Group and the 12×10 Group. The drift measured for just vision is the same as when the drift measured for synchronous stroking. Error bars: s.e.m. n = 10 in both groups, N = 20.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["synchronous", "asynchronous", "stroking"], "article_id"=>431314, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Marieke Rohde", "Massimiliano Di Luca", "Marc O. Ernst"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021659.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proprioceptive_drift_for_synchronous_stroking_asynchronous_stroking_and_just_vision_/431314", "title"=>"Proprioceptive drift for synchronous stroking, asynchronous stroking and just vision.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:07:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760886"], "description"=>"<p>There is always a drift when synchronous stroking occurs. Surprisingly, there is also proprioceptive drift if asynchronous stroking is interrupted regularly. Error bars: s.e.m. n = 10 in all three groups, dotted line indicates 5 cm line for readability, N = 30.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pre-test"], "article_id"=>431267, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Marieke Rohde", "Massimiliano Di Luca", "Marc O. Ernst"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021659.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Perceived_finger_position_relative_to_pre_test_across_time_for_the_different_groups_/431267", "title"=>"Perceived finger position relative to pre-test across time for the different groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:07:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760830"], "description"=>"<p>Left: Proprioceptive drift did not differ significantly between the synchronous and the asynchronous group, mean and s.e.m. N = 20. Right: The questionnaire results confirm that the procedure of interrupting stimulation every 10 s brings about the ownership illusion. Boldface questionnaire items indicate the occurrence of the ownership illusion. In the synchronous condition, questionnaire items Q1 and Q3 are rated significantly positive (p = 0.002; after Bonferroni correction for multiple measures: p = 0.018). Questionnaire item Q2 is nearly significantly positive (one negative reply, p = 0.022; after Bonferroni correction for multiple measures: p = 0.195). Error bars: 25 percentile−75 percentile; N = 20.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>431210, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Marieke Rohde", "Massimiliano Di Luca", "Marc O. Ernst"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021659.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_from_Experiment_1_/431210", "title"=>"Results from Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:07:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/760706"], "description"=>"<p>Two PHANToM force-feedback devices with paintbrush endings stroke the subject's occluded hand and the visible rubber hand. Probe dots are projected into the visual field using the CRT and a semi-silvered mirror. Top left: Schematic diagram of the set-up. Top right: photograph of the set-up. Bottom left: time-line of the procedure. Bottom right: patterns of stimulation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhi", "set-up"], "article_id"=>431077, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Marieke Rohde", "Massimiliano Di Luca", "Marc O. Ernst"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0021659.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_RHI_set_up_used_in_the_study_/431077", "title"=>"The RHI set-up used in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:06:39"}

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Relative Metric

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