Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics
Publication Date
July 27, 2011
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Todd H. Rider, Christina E. Zook, Tara L. Boettcher, Scott T. Wick, et al
Volume
6
Issue
7
Pages
e22572
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0022572
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21818340
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3144912
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21818340
Web of Science
000293282700041
Scopus
79960828399
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/broadspectrum-antiviral-therapeutics
Events
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{"title"=>"Broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Todd H.", "last_name"=>"Rider", "scopus_author_id"=>"36778267500"}, {"first_name"=>"Christina E.", "last_name"=>"Zook", "scopus_author_id"=>"54932740800"}, {"first_name"=>"Tara L.", "last_name"=>"Boettcher", "scopus_author_id"=>"48060890200"}, {"first_name"=>"Scott T.", "last_name"=>"Wick", "scopus_author_id"=>"56689740500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer S.", "last_name"=>"Pancoast", "scopus_author_id"=>"48061341300"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin D.", "last_name"=>"Zusman", "scopus_author_id"=>"54935481300"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21818340", "sgr"=>"79960828399", "pui"=>"362224310", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960828399", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0022572"}, "id"=>"dae1d673-8668-38d3-966e-b45628826010", "abstract"=>"Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO) that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/broadspectrum-antiviral-therapeutics", "reader_count"=>486, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>18, "Researcher"=>149, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>106, "Student > Postgraduate"=>22, "Student > Master"=>60, "Other"=>39, "Student > Bachelor"=>57, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>15}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>18, "Researcher"=>149, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753511"], "description"=>"<p>These include viruses with DNA, dsRNA, positive-sense ssRNA, and negative-sense ssRNA genomes; enveloped and non-enveloped viruses; viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm and viruses that replicate in the nucleus; human, bat, and rodent viruses; and viruses that use a variety of cellular receptors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["demonstrated", "draco", "efficacy"], "article_id"=>423876, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_We_have_demonstrated_DRACO_efficacy_against_a_broad_spectrum_of_viruses_/423876", "title"=>"We have demonstrated DRACO efficacy against a broad spectrum of viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 01:04:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/752219"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) 100 nM DRACO was effective against 130 pfu/well rhinovirus, whereas 100 nM negative controls were not (12 dpi). (<b>B</b>) Cell viability measured 7 dpi showed little difference if 100 nM DRACO-containing medium was removed 3 dpi when untreated cells had widespread CPE from 130 pfu/well rhinovirus 1B; there was no relapse of viral CPE in treated cells after DRACOs were withdrawn. (<b>C</b>) 1 dose of 25 nM PTD-PKR-Apaf DRACO was effective against rhinovirus 1B in NHLF cells when it was added from 6 days before infection to 3 days after infection. (Complete viral CPE in untreated cell populations required 3–4 days in our experiments, and for these experiments a significant fraction of cells were still uninfected 3 dpi.) Cell viability was measured 14 dpi.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhinovirus", "1b", "nhlf"], "article_id"=>422597, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DRACOs_were_effective_against_rhinovirus_1B_in_NHLF_cells_/422597", "title"=>"DRACOs were effective against rhinovirus 1B in NHLF cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 00:43:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/752778"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) 100 nM DRACOs were effective against 50 pfu/well encephalomyelitis. Cell viability measured 6 dpi showed little difference if DRACO-containing medium was removed 3 dpi when untreated cells had widespread CPE; there was no relapse of viral CPE in treated cells after DRACOs were withdrawn. (<b>B</b>) 100 nM PTD-PKR-Apaf DRACO was effective if added before, simultaneously with, or up to at least 6 hours after encephalomyelitis. (<b>C</b>) Multiple 100 nM DRACOs were effective against 50 pfu/well murine encephalomyelitis (4 dpi). Even better performance of these alternate DRACOs might be achieved with further optimization.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["murine", "encephalomyelitis", "l929"], "article_id"=>423145, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DRACOs_were_effective_against_murine_encephalomyelitis_in_L929_cells_/423145", "title"=>"DRACOs were effective against murine encephalomyelitis in L929 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 00:52:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/752607"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) 100 nM DRACOs were effective against 50 pfu/well murine adenovirus, whereas all negative controls were not (16 dpi). (<b>B</b>) 100 nM PTD-PKR-Apaf DRACO was effective if added before or up to at least 72 hours after adenovirus (16 dpi). (<b>C</b>) Multiple 100 nM DRACOs were effective against 50 pfu/well murine adenovirus (11 dpi). Even better performance of these alternate DRACOs might be achieved with further optimization.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["murine", "adenovirus", "l929"], "article_id"=>422973, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DRACOs_were_effective_against_murine_adenovirus_in_L929_cells_/422973", "title"=>"DRACOs were effective against murine adenovirus in L929 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 00:49:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379836", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/379943", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380041", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380110", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380162", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380233", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380267", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380308", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380351", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380409", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380444", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/380498"], "description"=>"<div><p>Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed <u>D</u>ouble-stranded <u>R</u>NA (dsRNA) <u>A</u>ctivated <u>C</u>aspase <u>O</u>ligomerizer (DRACO) that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["broad-spectrum", "antiviral", "therapeutics"], "article_id"=>135059, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Physics", "Biochemistry", "Biophysics", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Broad_Spectrum_Antiviral_Therapeutics/135059", "title"=>"Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 01:24:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753303"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) 0.5 mg PKR-Apaf DRACO administered i.n. to adult BALB/c mice penetrated the lungs and persisted over 24 hours. Averages of 3 mice per data point are plotted, and error bars show s.e.m. (<b>B</b>) PTD-PKR-Apaf, TAT-PKR-Apaf, and ARG-PKR-Apaf DRACOs administered i.n. on day 0 reduced the morbidity in mice challenged i.n. with 1 LD<sub>50</sub> influenza H1N1 A/PR/8/34.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["appeared", "administered", "intranasal", "injection", "proof-of-concept", "trials"], "article_id"=>423669, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DRACOs_appeared_promising_when_administered_via_intranasal_i_n_injection_in_proof_of_concept_trials_with_adult_BALB_c_mice_/423669", "title"=>"DRACOs appeared promising when administered via intranasal (i.n.) injection in proof-of-concept trials with adult BALB/c mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 01:01:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/752404"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Multiple 100 nM DRACOs were effective against 130 pfu/well rhinovirus (4 dpi). Even better performance of these alternate DRACOs might be achieved with further optimization. (<b>B</b>) PKR-Apaf DRACOs reduced the viral titer in supernatant from NHLF cells challenged with 300 pfu/well rhinovirus 1B to undetectable levels. PKR and Apaf-1 domains not covalently linked increased viral titers somewhat, possibly by interfering with the antiviral activity of endogenous wild-type PKR and Apaf-1. Cells were treated with 100 nM DRACO or controls. Supernatants were collected 4 dpi and their viral titers determined by serial dilution onto fresh 96-well NHLF plates. (<b>C</b>) The EC<sub>50</sub> for PTD-PKR-Apaf DRACO was 2–3 nM against 130 pfu/well rhinovirus 1B in NHLF cells (measured 3 dpi), and 50 pfu/well murine encephalomyelitis (3 dpi) and 50 pfu/well murine adenovirus (11 dpi) in L929 cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rhinovirus", "1b"], "article_id"=>422775, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DRACOs_were_effective_against_rhinovirus_1B_and_other_viruses_/422775", "title"=>"DRACOs were effective against rhinovirus 1B and other viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 00:46:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753162"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) 2.5 mg PTD-PKR-Apaf DRACO administered i.p. penetrated the liver, kidney, and lungs and persisted for at least 48 hours. Averages of 3 mice per data point are plotted, and error bars show s.e.m. (<b>B</b>) PTD-PKR-Apaf and TAT-PKR-Apaf DRACOs administered i.p. from day -1 through day 3 greatly reduced the morbidity and day-2 lung viral titers in mice challenged intranasally (i.n.) with 1.3 LD<sub>50</sub> influenza H1N1 A/PR/8/34. (<b>C</b>) PTD-RNaseL-Apaf, TAT-RNaseL-Apaf, and ARG-RNaseL-Apaf DRACOs administered i.p. from day -1 through day 3 greatly reduced the morbidity and day-2 lung viral titers in mice challenged i.n. with 0.3 LD<sub>50</sub> influenza H1N1 A/PR/8/34.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["appeared", "administered", "intraperitoneal", "injection", "proof-of-concept", "trials"], "article_id"=>423525, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DRACOs_appeared_promising_when_administered_via_intraperitoneal_i_p_injection_in_proof_of_concept_trials_with_adult_BALB_c_mice_/423525", "title"=>"DRACOs appeared promising when administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in proof-of-concept trials with adult BALB/c mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 00:58:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/752063"], "description"=>"<p>L929 cells transfected with both DRACO and poly(I)∶poly(C) dsRNA exhibited apoptosis within 24 hours, whereas cells that received only DRACO did not. Caspase inhibitors eliminated DRACO-mediated apoptosis in the presence of dsRNA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mediated", "apoptosis", "cells", "containing"], "article_id"=>422431, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DRACOs_mediated_apoptosis_in_cells_containing_dsRNA_/422431", "title"=>"DRACOs mediated apoptosis in cells containing dsRNA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 00:40:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751897"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) DRACOs with PTD or TAT tags entered H1-HeLa cells more readily than DRACO without a transduction tag. 400 nM PKR-Apaf DRACO was added to medium for 1 hour, and then cells were trypsinized and washed to remove any DRACO on the cell surface. Cells were lysed and analyzed for DRACO by westerns using anti-His<sub>6</sub> antibodies. Lysate from approximately 10<sup>5</sup> cells was loaded in each lane. A known amount of purified PKR-Apaf DRACO was used as a standard as indicated. (<b>B</b>) DRACOs entered HeLa cells within 10 minutes and reached a maximum after 1.5 hours. 400 nM TAT-PKR-Apaf DRACO was added to medium for the specified time, and then cells were analyzed as in (A). (<b>C</b>) DRACOs persisted within HeLa cells for at least 8 days. 500 nM PTD-PKR-Apaf DRACO was added to cell medium for 1 hour, and then cells were put into DRACO-free medium. After the specified number of days, cells were analyzed as in (A).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["penetrated", "cells", "persisted"], "article_id"=>422268, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DRACOs_penetrated_cells_and_persisted_for_days_/422268", "title"=>"DRACOs penetrated cells and persisted for days.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 00:37:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/753466"], "description"=>"<p>These include cells representing a variety of tissues; human, mouse, and monkey cells, and both primary and immortalized cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["demonstrated", "draco", "nontoxic"], "article_id"=>423837, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_We_have_demonstrated_that_DRACO_is_effective_and_nontoxic_in_a_wide_variety_of_cell_types_/423837", "title"=>"We have demonstrated that DRACO is effective and nontoxic in a wide variety of cell types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 01:03:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/751713"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) DRACOs with different dsRNA detection and apoptosis induction domains were designed and produced. All domains were human except murine Apaf-1 (mApaf-1), and some dsRNA detection domains used PKR<sub>1–181</sub> with vaccinia E3L dsRNA binding motif replacing PKR dsRBM 1 (NTE3L), dsRBM 2 (CTE3L), or both (2×E3L). His denotes His<sub>6</sub> purification tag and Txd denotes PTD, TAT, or ARG transduction tag. DRACOs with transduction tags on the N-, C-, or both termini were produced. (<b>B</b>) This protein gel shows examples of DRACOs and negative controls that were produced. 1 µg was loaded per lane. Final yields were approximately 30 mg purified protein per liter of culture.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dracos", "controls"], "article_id"=>422078, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_variety_of_DRACOs_and_controls_were_produced_/422078", "title"=>"A variety of DRACOs and controls were produced.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 00:34:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/752957"], "description"=>"<p>200 nM DRACOs with PTD, TAT, and ARG protein transduction tags were effective in Vero E6 cells against (<b>A</b>) 30 pfu/well Amapari (assayed 15 dpi), (<b>B</b>) 30 pfu/well Guama strain Be An 277 (assayed 5 dpi), and (<b>C</b>) 10 pfu dengue type 2 (assayed 20 dpi).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Virology", "Infectious diseases", "molecular biology", "biophysics", "physics", "Biochemistry"], "article_id"=>423327, "categories"=>["Physics", "Biochemistry", "Infectious Diseases", "Biophysics", "Virology", "Molecular Biology"], "users"=>["Todd H. Rider", "Christina E. Zook", "Tara L. Boettcher", "Scott T. Wick", "Jennifer S. Pancoast", "Benjamin D. Zusman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0022572.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_DRACOs_were_effective_against_arenaviruses_bunyaviruses_and_flaviviruses_/423327", "title"=>"DRACOs were effective against arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-07-27 00:55:27"}

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Relative Metric

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