Extending Brain-Training to the Affective Domain: Increasing Cognitive and Affective Executive Control through Emotional Working Memory Training
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{"title"=>"Extending brain-training to the affective domain: Increasing cognitive and affective executive control through emotional working memory training", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Susanne", "last_name"=>"Schweizer", "scopus_author_id"=>"26635865900"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam", "last_name"=>"Hampshire", "scopus_author_id"=>"16444234600"}, {"first_name"=>"Tim", "last_name"=>"Dalgleish", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003768363"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362577563", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0024372", "sgr"=>"80052870943", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80052870943", "pmid"=>"21949712"}, "id"=>"a0e789ec-a70d-3208-a909-0cef884aa114", "abstract"=>"So-called 'brain-training' programs are a huge commercial success. However, empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness and generalizability remains equivocal. This study investigated whether brain-training (working memory [WM] training) improves cognitive functions beyond the training task (transfer effects), especially regarding the control of emotional material since it constitutes much of the information we process daily. Forty-five participants received WM training using either emotional or neutral material, or an undemanding control task. WM training, regardless of training material, led to transfer gains on another WM task and in fluid intelligence. However, only brain-training with emotional material yielded transferable gains to improved control over affective information on an emotional Stroop task. The data support the reality of transferable benefits of demanding WM training and suggest that transferable gains across to affective contexts require training with material congruent to those contexts. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that intensive cognitively demanding brain-training can improve not only our abstract problem-solving capacity, but also ameliorate cognitive control processes (e.g. decision-making) in our daily emotive environments.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/extending-braintraining-affective-domain-increasing-cognitive-affective-executive-control-through-em-1", "reader_count"=>230, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>20, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>60, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>34, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>20, "Researcher"=>45, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>60, "Student > Postgraduate"=>10, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>34, "Student > Bachelor"=>25, "Lecturer"=>7, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>4, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>13, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Design"=>1, "Psychology"=>164, "Social Sciences"=>10, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>13}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>10}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>164}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Romania"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Switzerland"=>2, "Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Iran"=>3, "Finland"=>1, "Poland"=>3, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/370375", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/370419", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/370478"], "description"=>"<div><p>So-called ‘brain-training’ programs are a huge commercial success. However, empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness and generalizability remains equivocal. This study investigated whether brain-training (working memory [WM] training) improves cognitive functions beyond the training task (transfer effects), especially regarding the control of emotional material since it constitutes much of the information we process daily. Forty-five participants received WM training using either emotional or neutral material, or an undemanding control task. WM training, regardless of training material, led to transfer gains on another WM task and in fluid intelligence. However, only brain-training with emotional material yielded transferable gains to improved control over affective information on an emotional Stroop task. The data support the reality of transferable benefits of demanding WM training and suggest that transferable gains across to affective contexts require training with material congruent to those contexts. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that intensive cognitively demanding brain-training can improve not only our abstract problem-solving capacity, but also ameliorate cognitive control processes (e.g. decision-making) in our daily emotive environments.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extending", "brain-training", "affective"], "article_id"=>133177, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Susanne Schweizer", "Adam Hampshire", "Tim Dalgleish"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024372.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024372.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024372.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Extending_Brain_Training_to_the_Affective_Domain_Increasing_Cognitive_and_Affective_Executive_Control_through_Emotional_Working_Memory_Training/133177", "title"=>"Extending Brain-Training to the Affective Domain: Increasing Cognitive and Affective Executive Control through Emotional Working Memory Training", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 00:52:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733833"], "description"=>"<p>The figure depicts a block of the emotional version of the dual <i>n</i>-back task (training task) where <i>n</i> = 1. The top row shows the sequence across trials (A, B, C, D, etc.) of visually presented stimuli in a 4×4 grid (the visual stimuli were presented on a standard 1280×1024 pixel computer display). A picture of a face appeared in one of the 16 possible grid positions on each trial. Simultaneously, with the presentation of these visual stimuli on the computer display, participants heard words over headphones (second row in the figure). Participants were required to indicate, by button press, whether the trial was a ‘target trial’ or not. Targets could be visual or auditory. In the example here, Trial C is a visual target. That is, the face in Trial C is presented in the same location as the face in Trial B (i.e., <i>n</i> = 1 positions back). Note, the faces are of different actors. For visual stimuli participants were asked to ignore the content of the image and solely attend to the location in which the images were presented. In the current example, Trial D was an auditory target trial because ‘Evil’ is the same word as the word presented in Trial C - <i>n</i> positions back (where <i>n</i> = 1). Each block consisted of 20+<i>n</i> trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dual", "n-back"], "article_id"=>404187, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Susanne Schweizer", "Adam Hampshire", "Tim Dalgleish"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024372.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Emotional_dual_n_back_block_n_1_/404187", "title"=>"Emotional dual n-back block (<i>n</i> = 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:09:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733895"], "description"=>"<p>These two graphs show the linear improvement in average training performance across training days for all three groups. For the neutral <i>n</i>-back and affective <i>n</i>-back the score refers to mean level of <i>n</i>-back achieved. The score on the feature match task for the control group constitutes a mean composite score (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0024372#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a> and Materials).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>404256, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Susanne Schweizer", "Adam Hampshire", "Tim Dalgleish"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024372.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_improvement_across_training_days_/404256", "title"=>"Performance improvement across training days.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:10:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/733984"], "description"=>"<p>Figure 3 reports mean group scores achieved on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM; measure of fluid intelligence). Means (standard deviation) for the control and <i>n</i>-back trained groups are 28.29 (0.64), 26.56 (0.46) at pre-training and 26.27 (0.73), 27.29 (0.53) at post-training, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["benefits"], "article_id"=>404341, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Susanne Schweizer", "Adam Hampshire", "Tim Dalgleish"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024372.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transfer_benefits_of_training_to_fluid_intelligence_/404341", "title"=>"Transfer benefits of training to fluid intelligence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:12:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734082"], "description"=>"<p>Changes in reaction time (post-training reaction time in msec – pre-training reaction time in msec) in congruent and incongruent indices on the emotional Stroop task from pre-training to post-training, displayed such that the higher the change the greater the training-related benefits.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["benefits", "stroop", "affective"], "article_id"=>404446, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Susanne Schweizer", "Adam Hampshire", "Tim Dalgleish"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024372.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Training_benefits_on_the_emotional_Stroop_only_in_affective_training_group_/404446", "title"=>"Training benefits on the emotional Stroop only in affective training group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:14:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/734141"], "description"=>"<p>The table represents the three groups' demographic characteristics. Age (<i>M</i> (sd)): Mean and standard deviation of age in years; Gender (<i>n</i>): number of women; Education (<i>n</i>): 1 - 11<sup>th</sup> grade/2 - High school /3 - Graduate/4 - Postgraduate; Race (<i>n</i>): Caucasian/Asian/mixed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience"], "article_id"=>404499, "categories"=>["Neuroscience"], "users"=>["Susanne Schweizer", "Adam Hampshire", "Tim Dalgleish"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0024372.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Group_demographic_information_/404499", "title"=>"Group demographic information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-09-19 01:14:59"}

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