Changing the Chevreul Illusion by a Background Luminance Ramp: Lateral Inhibition Fails at Its Traditional Stronghold - A Psychophysical Refutation
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{"title"=>"Changing the chevreul illusion by a background luminance ramp: Lateral inhibition fails at its traditional stronghold - s psychophysical refutation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"János", "last_name"=>"Geier", "scopus_author_id"=>"24450372000"}, {"first_name"=>"Mariann", "last_name"=>"Hudák", "scopus_author_id"=>"24450473400"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"80054081816", "pui"=>"362750898", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0026062", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80054081816", "pmid"=>"22022508"}, "id"=>"5ad00940-e998-3ba2-935a-165ff0fa0702", "abstract"=>"The Chevreul illusion is a well-known 19(th) century brightness illusion, comprising adjacent homogeneous grey bands of different luminance, which are perceived as inhomogeneous. It is generally explained by lateral inhibition, according to which brighter areas projected to the retina inhibit the sensitivity of neighbouring retinal areas. Lateral inhibition has been considered the foundation-stone of early vision for a century, upon which several computational models of brightness perception are built. One of the last strongholds of lateral inhibition is the Chevreul illusion, which is often illustrated even in current textbooks. Here we prove that lateral inhibition is insufficient to explain the Chevreul illusion. For this aim, we placed the Chevreul staircase in a luminance ramp background, which noticeably changed the illusion. In our psychophysical experiments, all 23 observers reported a strong illusion, when the direction of the ramp was identical to that of the staircase, and all reported homogeneous steps (no illusion) when its direction was the opposite. When the background of the staircase was uniform, 14 saw the illusion, and 9 saw no illusion. To see whether the change of the entire background area or that of the staircase boundary edges were more important, we placed another ramp around the staircase, whose direction was opposite to that of the original, larger ramp. The result is that though the inner ramp is rather narrow (mean = 0.51 deg, SD = 0.48 deg, N = 23), it still dominates perception. Since all conditions of the lateral inhibition account were untouched within the staircase, lateral inhibition fails to model these perceptual changes. Area ratios seem insignificant; the role of boundary edges seems crucial. We suggest that long range interactions between boundary edges and areas enclosed by them, such that diffusion-based models describe, provide a much more plausible account for these brightness phenomena, and local models are insufficient.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/changing-chevreul-illusion-background-luminance-ramp-lateral-inhibition-fails-traditional-stronghold", "reader_count"=>12, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Psychology"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/725004"], "description"=>"<p>The staircases are physically identical in all the six panels. The steps in B are perceived as spatially uniform, while steps in A and C are both perceived as crimped, i.e. the inner ramp dominates in C. Panels D, E and F correspond to A, B and C respectively, illustrating larger and smaller DoG filters at critical locations. A portion of the inhibitory surrounds of small DoG filters near the upper and lower boundary edges of the staircases (<i>c</i>) reaches into the ramp, therefore if they are moved along the horizontal direction, their output will be somewhat similar to human perception due to the change of the intensity of the ramp along the horizontal direction. However, if the small DoG filters are moved within the inner area of the staircase (<i>b</i>), they do not reach into the ramp, therefore they provide identical outputs for all images, contradictory to human perception. The effect of the ramp background can manifest in the DoG filter outputs in the midline of the staircase if and only if the diameter of the DoG filter is larger than the height of the staircase. Following the same logic as above, DoGs of such large diameters (<i>a</i>) might predict the different perception of A and B. Nonetheless, such large filters exceed significantly beyond the inner ramp in F(<i>a</i>). As a consequence, the stimulation of DoG filter F(<i>a</i>) is much more similar to that of E(<i>a</i>) compared to D(<i>a</i>). This is in contradiction with human perception, since the perception of A and C are crimped, while B is perceived as flat.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimulation", "filters", "spatial"], "article_id"=>395366, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["János Geier", "Mariann Hudák"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026062.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Perceptual_experience_vs_the_stimulation_of_DoG_filters_of_different_spatial_scales_/395366", "title"=>"Perceptual experience vs. the stimulation of DoG filters of different spatial scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:29:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724892"], "description"=>"<p>The middle step of two staircases surrounded by ramps of opposite progressions are enlarged in the upper part of A and B. If the DoG filters are moved along the horizontal direction, as shown by the arrows, they will predict the brightness values shown in the brightness cross-section diagrams <i>a</i> and <i>b</i> below the image. The luminance cross-sections produced by our simulation of the DoG filter at y = 325 and y = 500 (<i>a</i> and <i>b</i>) are shown below the enlarged steps, respectively. On the one hand, the prediction of DoG filter (<i>a</i>) is somewhat similar to human perception, since it predicts a steeper slope in A. On the other hand, though the step in B is seen as totally flat, DoG filter (<i>a</i>) still predicts scalloping there. In addition, in the midline of the two staircases, no difference is predicted between A and B by DoG filter (<i>b</i>), contradictory to human perception, according to which the steps in A and B look largely different. Moreover, the predictions of (<i>a</i>) and (<i>b</i>) within each staircase shows different brightness cross-sections, although the illusion is equally strong through the entire height of the staircase. (The cross-section diagrams were produced by our computer simulation).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["steps", "ramps"], "article_id"=>395257, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["János Geier", "Mariann Hudák"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026062.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_output_of_the_DoG_model_for_steps_in_ramps_of_opposite_directions_/395257", "title"=>"The output of the DoG model for steps in ramps of opposite directions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:27:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724604"], "description"=>"<p>Two physically identical Chevreul staircases of opposite progression were placed in a luminance ramp background. (Identical letters indicate the steps of physically identical luminance). It can be seen that due to the ramp, the illusion has significantly changed: The illusion ceases if the progression of the staircase is opposite to that of the ramp (upper staircase), while it is strongly enhanced when the progressions of the ramp and that of the staircase are identical (lower staircase).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["luminance", "ramp"], "article_id"=>394969, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["János Geier", "Mariann Hudák"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026062.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_the_luminance_ramp_background_/394969", "title"=>"The effect of the luminance ramp background.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:22:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724484"], "description"=>"<p>The steps adjacent to each other are physically homogeneous; however, they seem inhomogeneous (crimped). The side of each step adjoining a brighter step seems darker than its other side. The physical luminance cross-section of the midline of the staircase is displayed in the bottom part of the figure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chevreul"], "article_id"=>394843, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["János Geier", "Mariann Hudák"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026062.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_classical_Chevreul_illusion_/394843", "title"=>"The classical Chevreul illusion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:20:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367618", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/367651"], "description"=>"<div><p>The Chevreul illusion is a well-known 19<sup>th</sup> century brightness illusion, comprising adjacent homogeneous grey bands of different luminance, which are perceived as inhomogeneous. It is generally explained by lateral inhibition, according to which brighter areas projected to the retina inhibit the sensitivity of neighbouring retinal areas. Lateral inhibition has been considered the foundation-stone of early vision for a century, upon which several computational models of brightness perception are built. One of the last strongholds of lateral inhibition is the Chevreul illusion, which is often illustrated even in current textbooks. Here we prove that lateral inhibition is insufficient to explain the Chevreul illusion. For this aim, we placed the Chevreul staircase in a luminance ramp background, which noticeably changed the illusion. In our psychophysical experiments, all 23 observers reported a strong illusion, when the direction of the ramp was identical to that of the staircase, and all reported homogeneous steps (no illusion) when its direction was the opposite. When the background of the staircase was uniform, 14 saw the illusion, and 9 saw no illusion. To see whether the change of the entire background area or that of the staircase boundary edges were more important, we placed another ramp around the staircase, whose direction was opposite to that of the original, larger ramp. The result is that though the inner ramp is rather narrow (mean = 0.51 deg, SD = 0.48 deg, N = 23), it still dominates perception. Since all conditions of the lateral inhibition account were untouched within the staircase, lateral inhibition fails to model these perceptual changes. Area ratios seem insignificant; the role of boundary edges seems crucial. We suggest that long range interactions between boundary edges and areas enclosed by them, such that diffusion-based models describe, provide a much more plausible account for these brightness phenomena, and local models are insufficient.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chevreul", "luminance", "lateral", "inhibition", "fails", "stronghold", "psychophysical", "refutation"], "article_id"=>132622, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["János Geier", "Mariann Hudák"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026062.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026062.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Changing_the_Chevreul_Illusion_by_a_Background_Luminance_Ramp_Lateral_Inhibition_Fails_at_Its_Traditional_Stronghold_A_Psychophysical_Refutation/132622", "title"=>"Changing the Chevreul Illusion by a Background Luminance Ramp: Lateral Inhibition Fails at Its Traditional Stronghold - A Psychophysical Refutation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 00:43:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/724740"], "description"=>"<p>The staircase-pairs in the four images are physically identical; the upper and lower staircases in each image are also identical except for their progression to opposite directions. On comparing <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0026062#pone-0026062-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a>. A and B, it can be seen that a ramp of opposite direction causes opposite effects. On comparing Figure C with A and B, it can be seen that the illusion in C is identical with that in B. This is so, although the large outer ramp in Fig C is identical with the one in A. Therefore the small inner ramp dominates perception, whose direction is identical to that in B. Finally, the upper and lower staircases in D look identical (except for their direction), therefore here also the inner small area, the homogeneous white rectangle is what dominates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ramp"], "article_id"=>395103, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["János Geier", "Mariann Hudák"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026062.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_a_double_ramp_background_/395103", "title"=>"The effect of a double ramp background.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-13 01:25:03"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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