The Making of a Monster: Postnatal Ontogenetic Changes in Craniomandibular Shape in the Great Sabercat Smilodon
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{"title"=>"The making of a monster: Postnatal ontogenetic changes in craniomandibular shape in the great sabercat Smilodon", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Per", "last_name"=>"Christiansen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102789181"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84855321145", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0029699", "pui"=>"364029159", "pmid"=>"22235326", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84855321145", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"432c388f-71e4-3b82-ab4e-6e6ac259312b", "abstract"=>"Derived sabercats had craniomandibular morphologies that in many respects were highly different from those of extant felids, and this has often been interpreted functionally as adaptations for predation at extreme gape angles with hypertrophied upper canines. It is unknown how much of this was a result of intraspecific postnatal ontogeny, since juveniles of sabercats are rare and no quantitative study has been made of craniomandibular ontogeny. Postnatal ontogenetic craniomandibular shape changes in two morphologically derived sabercats, Smilodon fatalis and S. populator, were analysed using geometric morphometrics and compared to three species of extant pantherines, the jaguar, tiger, and Sunda clouded leopard. Ontogenetic shape changes in Smilodon usually involved the same areas of the cranium and mandible as in extant pantherines, and large-scale modularization was similar, suggesting that such may have been the case for all felids, since it followed the same trends previously observed in other mammals. However, in other respects Smilodon differed from extant pantherines. Their crania underwent much greater and more localised ontogenetic shape changes than did the mandibles, whereas crania and mandibles of extant pantherines underwent smaller, fewer and less localised shape changes. Ontogenetic shape changes in the two species of Smilodon are largely similar, but differences are also present, notably those which may be tied to the presence of larger upper canines in S. populator. Several of the specialized cranial characters differentiating adult Smilodon from extant felids in a functional context, which are usually regarded as evolutionary adaptations for achieving high gape angles, are ontogenetic, and in several instances ontogeny appears to recapitulate phylogeny to some extent. No such ontogenetic evolutionary adaptive changes were found in the extant pantherines. Evolution in morphologically derived sabercats involved greater cranial ontogenetic changes than among extant felids, resulting in greatly modified adult craniomandibular morphologies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/making-monster-postnatal-ontogenetic-changes-craniomandibular-shape-great-sabercat-smilodon", "reader_count"=>129, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>25, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>78, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>78}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>25}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "United States"=>2, "China"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "United Arab Emirates"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697169"], "description"=>"<p>Landmarks on the cranium are: 1, top of cranium at the junction of sagittal and nuchal crests; 2, top of occipital condyle; 3, dorsal extent of the mastoid musculature; 4, apex of paroccipital process; 5, apex of mastoid process; 6, centre of external auditory meatus; 7, posterior base of zygomatic arch; 8, ventral junction of jugal-squamosal suture; 9, centre of mandibular condyle; 10, base of postorbital process (jugal portion); 11, apex of postorbital process (frontal portion); 12, centre of orbital aperture; 13, junction of jugal-maxilla suture; 14, posterior, and 15, anterior edge of P<sup>4</sup> (dP<sup>4</sup> in juveniles); 15, posterior, and 16, anterior edge of P<sup>3</sup> (dP<sup>3</sup> in juveniles); 17, posterior, and 18, anterior edge of C<sup>1</sup> (dC<sup>1</sup> in juveniles); 19, anterior edge of premaxilla at incisor alveolus; 20, ventral edge of external narial aperture; 21, apex of nasal; 22, dorsal, and 23, ventral edge of infraorbital foramen; 24, dorsal edge of maxilla-frontal suture; 25, dorsal edge of centre of frontal postorbital process; 26, dorsal edge of beginning of temporal fossa. Landmarks on the mandible are: 1, apex of mandibular cotyle; 2, posterior, and 3, anterior base of coronoid process; 4, apex of coronoid process; 5, posterior, and 6, anterior edge of retroarticular process; 7, anterior extent of mandibular (<i>M. temporalis</i>) adductor musculature; 8, posterior, and 10, anterior edge of M<sub>1</sub> (in the included juveniles, M<sub>1</sub> is un-erupted but the alveolar orifice and scar can easily be made out); 10, posterior, and 12, anterior edge of P<sub>4</sub> (dP<sub>4</sub> in juveniles); 14, posterior, and 15, anterior edge of C<sub>1</sub> (dC<sub>1</sub> in juveniles) at the alveolar border; 16, ventral edge of mandibular symphysis; and the depth of the horizontal mandibular ramus posterior to M<sub>1</sub> (8, 9), at the M<sub>1</sub>/P<sub>4</sub> junction (10, 11); and anterior to P<sub>4</sub> (12, 13). Scale bar equals 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["landmarks"], "article_id"=>367584, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Per Christiansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustration_of_a_skull_of_Smilodon_fatalis_LACMHC2001_3_showing_landmarks_used_in_the_analysis_/367584", "title"=>"Illustration of a skull of <i>Smilodon fatalis</i> (LACMHC2001–3) showing landmarks used in the analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:06:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696931"], "description"=>"<p>A, <i>Neofelis diardi</i> juvenile (RMNH3518); B, <i>Neofelis diardi</i> adult (RMNH 71/41); C, <i>Panthera onca</i> juvenile (RMNH3212); D, <i>Panthera onca</i> adult (CN842); E, <i>Panthera tigris</i> juvenile (CN5654); F, <i>Panthera tigris</i> adult (RMNH “n”). Scale bars equal 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crania", "juvenile", "extant", "felids", "scaled", "condylobasal"], "article_id"=>367340, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Per Christiansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_comparison_of_crania_in_juvenile_and_adult_extant_felids_scaled_to_the_same_condylobasal_length_/367340", "title"=>"A comparison of crania in juvenile and adult extant felids scaled to the same condylobasal length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:02:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696828"], "description"=>"<p>A, juvenile <i>S. populator</i> (NRM); B, adult <i>S. populator</i> (CN52); C, juvenile <i>S. fatalis</i> (PC coll.; from Dinocasts); D, adult <i>S. fatalis</i> (LACMHC3E-350). The juvenile <i>S. fatalis</i> mandible is an example of a gracile mandible type whereas the adult mandible is of a more robust type, but variation in juveniles and adults in the La Brea material is substantial. Scale bars equal 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandibles", "juvenile", "scaled"], "article_id"=>367239, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Per Christiansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_comparison_of_mandibles_in_juvenile_and_adult_Smilodon_spp_scaled_to_the_same_overall_length_/367239", "title"=>"A comparison of mandibles in juvenile and adult <i>Smilodon</i> spp. scaled to the same overall length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:00:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697288"], "description"=>"<p>A, <i>Smilodon fatalis</i>; B, <i>S. populator</i>; C, <i>Neofelis diardi</i>; D, <i>Panthera onca</i>; and D, <i>P. tigris</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cartesian", "deformation", "grids", "illustrating", "ontogenetic", "changes", "crania", "extant"], "article_id"=>367686, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Per Christiansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_cartesian_deformation_grids_illustrating_ontogenetic_net_shape_changes_in_crania_of_Smilodon_spp_and_extant_pantherines_/367686", "title"=>"Comparison of cartesian deformation grids illustrating ontogenetic net shape changes in crania of <i>Smilodon</i> spp. and extant pantherines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:08:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697064"], "description"=>"<p>A, <i>Neofelis diardi</i> juvenile (RMNH3518); B, <i>Neofelis diardi</i> adult (RMNH “a”); C, <i>Panthera onca</i> juvenile (RMNH3212); D, <i>Panthera onca</i> adult (CN842); E, <i>Panthera tigris</i> juvenile (CN1523); F, <i>Panthera tigris</i> adult (CN772). Scale bars equal 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mandibles", "juvenile", "extant", "felids", "scaled"], "article_id"=>367476, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Per Christiansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_comparison_of_mandibles_in_juvenile_and_adult_extant_felids_scaled_to_the_same_overall_length_/367476", "title"=>"A comparison of mandibles in juvenile and adult extant felids scaled to the same overall length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:04:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/697488"], "description"=>"<p>A, <i>Smilodon fatalis</i>; B, <i>S. populator</i>; C, <i>Neofelis diardi</i>; D, <i>Panthera onca</i>; and D, <i>P. tigris</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cartesian", "deformation", "grids", "illustrating", "ontogenetic", "changes", "mandibles", "extant"], "article_id"=>367884, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Per Christiansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_cartesian_deformation_grids_illustrating_ontogenetic_net_shape_changes_in_mandibles_of_Smilodon_spp_and_extant_pantherines_/367884", "title"=>"Comparison of cartesian deformation grids illustrating ontogenetic net shape changes in mandibles of <i>Smilodon</i> spp. and extant pantherines.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 02:11:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354329", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354495", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/354734"], "description"=>"<div><p>Derived sabercats had craniomandibular morphologies that in many respects were highly different from those of extant felids, and this has often been interpreted functionally as adaptations for predation at extreme gape angles with hypertrophied upper canines. It is unknown how much of this was a result of intraspecific postnatal ontogeny, since juveniles of sabercats are rare and no quantitative study has been made of craniomandibular ontogeny. Postnatal ontogenetic craniomandibular shape changes in two morphologically derived sabercats, <em>Smilodon fatalis</em> and <em>S. populator</em>, were analysed using geometric morphometrics and compared to three species of extant pantherines, the jaguar, tiger, and Sunda clouded leopard. Ontogenetic shape changes in <em>Smilodon</em> usually involved the same areas of the cranium and mandible as in extant pantherines, and large-scale modularization was similar, suggesting that such may have been the case for all felids, since it followed the same trends previously observed in other mammals. However, in other respects <em>Smilodon</em> differed from extant pantherines. Their crania underwent much greater and more localised ontogenetic shape changes than did the mandibles, whereas crania and mandibles of extant pantherines underwent smaller, fewer and less localised shape changes. Ontogenetic shape changes in the two species of <em>Smilodon</em> are largely similar, but differences are also present, notably those which may be tied to the presence of larger upper canines in <em>S. populator</em>. Several of the specialized cranial characters differentiating adult <em>Smilodon</em> from extant felids in a functional context, which are usually regarded as evolutionary adaptations for achieving high gape angles, are ontogenetic, and in several instances ontogeny appears to recapitulate phylogeny to some extent. No such ontogenetic evolutionary adaptive changes were found in the extant pantherines. Evolution in morphologically derived sabercats involved greater cranial ontogenetic changes than among extant felids, resulting in greatly modified adult craniomandibular morphologies.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["making", "postnatal", "ontogenetic", "changes", "craniomandibular", "sabercat"], "article_id"=>130035, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Per Christiansen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Making_of_a_Monster_Postnatal_Ontogenetic_Changes_in_Craniomandibular_Shape_in_the_Great_Sabercat_Smilodon_/130035", "title"=>"The Making of a Monster: Postnatal Ontogenetic Changes in Craniomandibular Shape in the Great Sabercat <em>Smilodon</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 00:00:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/696711"], "description"=>"<p>A, juvenile <i>S. populator</i> (NRM); B, adult <i>S. populator</i> (BM, cast); C, juvenile <i>S. fatalis</i> (PC coll.; from Dinocasts); D, adult <i>S. fatalis</i> (LACMHC2001-173). Scale bars equal 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["crania", "juvenile", "scaled", "condylobasal"], "article_id"=>367122, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Ecology", "Developmental Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Per Christiansen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029699.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>80, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_comparison_of_crania_in_juvenile_and_adult_Smilodon_spp_scaled_to_the_same_condylobasal_length_/367122", "title"=>"A comparison of crania in juvenile and adult <i>Smilodon</i> spp. scaled to the same condylobasal length.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-01-03 01:58:42"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[322, 550, 671, 773, 864, 955, 1048, 1135, 1223, 1308, 1387, 1465, 1534, 1602, 1673, 1744, 1813, 1885, 1955, 2026, 2093, 2160, 2228, 2290, 2349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[308, 530, 649, 751, 844, 933, 1021, 1107, 1194, 1277, 1357, 1426, 1501, 1572, 1634, 1702, 1768, 1838, 1910, 1976, 2046, 2114, 2181, 2241, 2298]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[313, 562, 690, 796, 893, 986, 1079, 1173, 1257, 1349, 1429, 1506, 1586, 1661, 1730, 1803, 1876, 1945, 2017, 2091, 2163, 2225, 2294, 2362, 2430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[307, 536, 653, 753, 839, 926, 1017, 1103, 1189, 1268, 1348, 1425, 1492, 1557, 1620, 1686, 1759, 1825, 1891, 1950, 2014, 2079, 2141, 2200, 2255]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}]}
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