The Smell of Age: Perception and Discrimination of Body Odors of Different Ages
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{"title"=>"The smell of age: Perception and discrimination of body odors of different ages", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Susanna", "last_name"=>"Mitro", "scopus_author_id"=>"55233562000"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy R.", "last_name"=>"Gordon", "scopus_author_id"=>"36145039300"}, {"first_name"=>"Mats J.", "last_name"=>"Olsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35512724700"}, {"first_name"=>"Johan N.", "last_name"=>"Lundström", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643298800"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"364913238", "sgr"=>"84861589662", "pmid"=>"22666457", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84861589662", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0038110"}, "id"=>"27310f41-f367-35f6-8ba9-5e75a493d20e", "abstract"=>"Our natural body odor goes through several stages of age-dependent changes in chem. compn. as we grow older. Similar changes have been reported for several animal species and are thought to facilitate age discrimination of an individual based on body odors, alone. We sought to det. whether humans are able to discriminate between body odor of humans of different ages. Body odors were sampled from three distinct age groups: Young (20-30 years old), Middle-age (45-55), and Old-age (75-95) individuals. Perceptual ratings and age discrimination performance were assessed in 41 young participants. There were significant differences in ratings of both intensity and pleasantness, where body odors from the Old-age group were rated as less intense and less unpleasant than body odors originating from Young and Middle-age donors. Participants were able to discriminate between age categories, with body odor from Old-age donors mediating the effect also after removing variance explained by intensity differences. Similarly, participants were able to correctly assign age labels to body odors originating from Old-age donors but not to body odors originating from other age groups. This expt. suggests that, akin to other animals, humans are able to discriminate age based on body odor alone and that this effect is mediated mainly by body odors emitted by individuals of Old-age. [on SciFinder(R)]", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/smell-age-perception-discrimination-body-odors-different-ages", "reader_count"=>103, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Chemistry"=>8, "Computer Science"=>3, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>34, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>34}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630386"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) Mean intensity ratings for each body odor category divided by sex of body odor donor. <b>B</b>) Mean pleasantness ratings for each body odor category divided by sex of the body odor donor. Negative values indicate ratings on the unpleasant spectra whereas positive values indicate ratings on the positive spectra. <b>C</b>) Mean discrimination performance, measured in percentage correct responses, according to comparison and donor sex. Solid line in graph represents chance performance (50%). <b>D</b>) Left hand side indicates total correct pairings of each body odor category and right hand side indicates mean correct age labeling of the body odors. In all graphs, error bars denote standard error of the mean (SEM).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "neuroscience"], "article_id"=>300876, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Susanna Mitro", "Amy R. Gordon", "Mats J. Olsson", "Johan N. Lundström"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038110.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_performance_for_each_task_/300876", "title"=>"Mean performance for each task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:14:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/326457"], "description"=>"<div><p>Our natural body odor goes through several stages of age-dependent changes in chemical composition as we grow older. Similar changes have been reported for several animal species and are thought to facilitate age discrimination of an individual based on body odors, alone. We sought to determine whether humans are able to discriminate between body odor of humans of different ages. Body odors were sampled from three distinct age groups: Young (20–30 years old), Middle-age (45–55), and Old-age (75–95) individuals. Perceptual ratings and age discrimination performance were assessed in 41 young participants. There were significant differences in ratings of both intensity and pleasantness, where body odors from the Old-age group were rated as less intense and less unpleasant than body odors originating from Young and Middle-age donors. Participants were able to discriminate between age categories, with body odor from Old-age donors mediating the effect also after removing variance explained by intensity differences. Similarly, participants were able to correctly assign age labels to body odors originating from Old-age donors but not to body odors originating from other age groups. This experiment suggests that, akin to other animals, humans are able to discriminate age based on body odor alone and that this effect is mediated mainly by body odors emitted by individuals of old age.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["odors", "ages"], "article_id"=>124444, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Susanna Mitro", "Amy R. Gordon", "Mats J. Olsson", "Johan N. Lundström"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038110", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Smell_of_Age_Perception_and_Discrimination_of_Body_Odors_of_Different_Ages/124444", "title"=>"The Smell of Age: Perception and Discrimination of Body Odors of Different Ages", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 01:14:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/630520"], "description"=>"<p>Mean values for perceptual ratings and discrimination performance. SEM indicates standard error of the means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["perceptual", "ratings", "sem", "indicates"], "article_id"=>301014, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Susanna Mitro", "Amy R. Gordon", "Mats J. Olsson", "Johan N. Lundström"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038110.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_values_for_perceptual_ratings_and_discrimination_performance_SEM_indicates_standard_error_of_the_means_/301014", "title"=>"Mean values for perceptual ratings and discrimination performance. SEM indicates standard error of the means.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-05-30 00:16:54"}

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