Divergent Effects of Beliefs in Heaven and Hell on National Crime Rates
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{"title"=>"Divergent effects of beliefs in heaven and hell on national crime rates", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Azim F.", "last_name"=>"Shariff", "scopus_author_id"=>"20436715000"}, {"first_name"=>"Mijke", "last_name"=>"Rhemtulla", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801554481"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84862491793", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0039048", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84862491793", "pmid"=>"22723927", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"365024020"}, "id"=>"1918c489-3fb3-3faa-b153-ae3ed14ac7a4", "abstract"=>"Though religion has been shown to have generally positive effects on normative 'prosocial' behavior, recent laboratory research suggests that these effects may be driven primarily by supernatural punishment. Supernatural benevolence, on the other hand, may actually be associated with less prosocial behavior. Here, we investigate these effects at the societal level, showing that the proportion of people who believe in hell negatively predicts national crime rates whereas belief in heaven predicts higher crime rates. These effects remain after accounting for a host of covariates, and ultimately prove stronger predictors of national crime rates than economic variables such as GDP and income inequality. Expanding on laboratory research on religious prosociality, this is the first study to tie religious beliefs to large-scale cross-national trends in pro- and anti-social behavior.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/divergent-effects-beliefs-heaven-hell-national-crime-rates", "reader_count"=>113, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Philosophy"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>9, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Psychology"=>48, "Social Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>48}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>9}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "South Korea"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>2, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/622675"], "description"=>"<p>Crime rate z-scores as a function of how much higher the proportion of a nation that believes in heaven is compared to the proportion that believes in hell. R<sup>2</sup> = .54.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["z-scores", "higher", "believes", "compared"], "article_id"=>293165, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Azim F. Shariff", "Mijke Rhemtulla"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039048.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crime_rate_z_scores_as_a_function_of_how_much_higher_the_proportion_of_a_nation_that_believes_in_heaven_is_compared_to_the_proportion_that_believes_in_hell_R_2_8202_8202_54_/293165", "title"=>"Crime rate z-scores as a function of how much higher the proportion of a nation that believes in heaven is compared to the proportion that believes in hell. R<sup>2</sup> = .54.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:47:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/622759"], "description"=>"<p>Note. As recommended by <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039048#pone.0039048-Simmons1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, regression results are presented with and without covariates. Asterisks indicate significance levels according to Wald tests (<sup>*</sup>  =  significant at α = .05, <sup>**</sup>  =  significant α = .005, <sup>***</sup>  =  significant at α = .001). Significance tests should be interpreted cautiously, as no correction has been made for inflated error rates due to performing a large set of analyses. As 12 analyses were performed, only those effects that are significant at α = .005 or below may be confidently interpreted as significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rates", "beliefs", "13"], "article_id"=>293251, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Azim F. Shariff", "Mijke Rhemtulla"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039048.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_of_individual_crime_rates_on_beliefs_in_heaven_hell_and_13_covariates_/293251", "title"=>"Regression of individual crime rates on beliefs in heaven, hell, and 13 covariates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 03:47:56"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[354, 559, 676, 770, 854, 949, 1040, 1128, 1220, 1295, 1364, 1439, 1511, 1580, 1636, 1693, 1753, 1808, 1882, 1944, 2019, 2070, 2120, 2176, 2247]}]}
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