Understanding Libertarian Morality: The Psychological Dispositions of Self-Identified Libertarians
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{"title"=>"Understanding libertarian morality: The psychological dispositions of self-identified libertarians", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ravi", "last_name"=>"Iyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"36608175700"}, {"first_name"=>"Spassena", "last_name"=>"Koleva", "scopus_author_id"=>"33068055200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jesse", "last_name"=>"Graham", "scopus_author_id"=>"32667712200"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Ditto", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003936520"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan", "last_name"=>"Haidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602128532"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203(Electronic)", "pmid"=>"22927928", "pui"=>"365470393", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84865165946", "sgr"=>"84865165946", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0042366"}, "id"=>"ca10ef2d-3ca8-3748-94ca-26404a098a18", "abstract"=>"Libertarians are an increasingly prominent ideological group in U.S. politics, yet they have been largely unstudied. Across 16 measures in a large web-based sample that included 11,994 self-identified libertarians, we sought to understand the moral and psychological characteristics of self-described libertarians. Based on an intuitionist view of moral judgment, we focused on the underlying affective and cognitive dispositions that accompany this unique worldview. Compared to self-identified liberals and conservatives, libertarians showed 1) stronger endorsement of individual liberty as their foremost guiding principle, and weaker endorsement of all other moral principles; 2) a relatively cerebral as opposed to emotional cognitive style; and 3) lower interdependence and social relatedness. As predicted by intuitionist theories concerning the origins of moral reasoning, libertarian values showed convergent relationships with libertarian emotional dispositions and social preferences. Our findings add to a growing recognition of the role of personality differences in the organization of political attitudes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/understanding-libertarian-morality-psychological-dispositions-selfidentified-libertarians", "reader_count"=>242, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>15, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>64, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>38, "Other"=>22, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>15, "Researcher"=>34, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>64, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>38, "Other"=>22, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Philosophy"=>16, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>18, "Computer Science"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7, "Engineering"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Design"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Psychology"=>112, "Social Sciences"=>37, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>37}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>112}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>18}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>16}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>21, "Norway"=>1, "Japan"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>5, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Mexico"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "France"=>2}, "group_count"=>9}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589236"], "description"=>"<p>Note: Factor loadings <|.1| omitted. Factor loadings >|.5| bolded.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["components", "loadings", "variables"], "article_id"=>259724, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ravi Iyer", "Spassena Koleva", "Jesse Graham", "Peter Ditto", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042366.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principle_Components_Analysis_Factor_Loadings_of_Variables_in_Study_1_/259724", "title"=>"Principle Components Analysis Factor Loadings of Variables in Study 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-21 02:42:04"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/588517"], "description"=>"<p>Libertarians have weaker intuitions about most moral concerns, but stronger intuitions about liberty.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["weaker", "intuitions", "stronger"], "article_id"=>259010, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ravi Iyer", "Spassena Koleva", "Jesse Graham", "Peter Ditto", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042366.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Libertarians_have_weaker_intuitions_about_most_moral_concerns_but_stronger_intuitions_about_liberty_/259010", "title"=>"Libertarians have weaker intuitions about most moral concerns, but stronger intuitions about liberty.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-21 02:30:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/588661"], "description"=>"<p>Libertarians report lower emotional responsiveness, but higher levels of psychological reactance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["higher", "levels"], "article_id"=>259151, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ravi Iyer", "Spassena Koleva", "Jesse Graham", "Peter Ditto", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042366.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Libertarians_report_lower_emotional_responsiveness_but_higher_levels_of_psychological_reactance_/259151", "title"=>"Libertarians report lower emotional responsiveness, but higher levels of psychological reactance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-21 02:32:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/588842"], "description"=>"<p>Structural Equation Model showing relationship between libertarian dispositions and values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["libertarian", "dispositions"], "article_id"=>259333, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ravi Iyer", "Spassena Koleva", "Jesse Graham", "Peter Ditto", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042366.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Structural_Equation_Model_showing_relationship_between_libertarian_dispositions_and_values_/259333", "title"=>"Structural Equation Model showing relationship between libertarian dispositions and values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-21 02:35:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589058"], "description"=>"<p>\n <i>Note:</i></p>*<p>\n <i>p<.01,</i></p>**<p>\n <i>p<.001 (two tailed).</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["d-scores", "measures"], "article_id"=>259549, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ravi Iyer", "Spassena Koleva", "Jesse Graham", "Peter Ditto", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042366.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_and_Cohen_s_d_scores_for_measures_in_Study_1_/259549", "title"=>"Means and Cohen's d-scores for measures in Study 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-21 02:39:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/588939"], "description"=>"<p>Libertarians are less connected to others, including both broad and tight social connections.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["connected"], "article_id"=>259434, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ravi Iyer", "Spassena Koleva", "Jesse Graham", "Peter Ditto", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042366.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Libertarians_are_less_connected_to_others_including_both_broad_and_tight_social_connections_/259434", "title"=>"Libertarians are less connected to others, including both broad and tight social connections.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-21 02:37:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/309407"], "description"=>"<div><p>Libertarians are an increasingly prominent ideological group in U.S. politics, yet they have been largely unstudied. Across 16 measures in a large web-based sample that included 11,994 self-identified libertarians, we sought to understand the moral and psychological characteristics of self-described libertarians. Based on an intuitionist view of moral judgment, we focused on the underlying affective and cognitive dispositions that accompany this unique worldview. Compared to self-identified liberals and conservatives, libertarians showed 1) stronger endorsement of individual liberty as their foremost guiding principle, and weaker endorsement of all other moral principles; 2) a relatively cerebral as opposed to emotional cognitive style; and 3) lower interdependence and social relatedness. As predicted by intuitionist theories concerning the origins of moral reasoning, libertarian values showed convergent relationships with libertarian emotional dispositions and social preferences. Our findings add to a growing recognition of the role of personality differences in the organization of political attitudes.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["libertarian", "dispositions", "self-identified", "libertarians"], "article_id"=>121047, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ravi Iyer", "Spassena Koleva", "Jesse Graham", "Peter Ditto", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042366", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Understanding_Libertarian_Morality_The_Psychological_Dispositions_of_Self_Identified_Libertarians/121047", "title"=>"Understanding Libertarian Morality: The Psychological Dispositions of Self-Identified Libertarians", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-21 00:17:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/589101"], "description"=>"<p>Description of Three Groups from Study 1 Cluster Analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["groups"], "article_id"=>259589, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ravi Iyer", "Spassena Koleva", "Jesse Graham", "Peter Ditto", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042366.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_Three_Groups_from_Study_1_Cluster_Analysis_/259589", "title"=>"Description of Three Groups from Study 1 Cluster Analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-08-21 02:39:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/588745"], "description"=>"<p>Libertarians exhibit a reason-based cognitive style according to a variety of measures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reason-based"], "article_id"=>259236, "categories"=>["Mental Health"], "users"=>["Ravi Iyer", "Spassena Koleva", "Jesse Graham", "Peter Ditto", "Jonathan Haidt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0042366.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Libertarians_exhibit_a_reason_based_cognitive_style_according_to_a_variety_of_measures_/259236", "title"=>"Libertarians exhibit a reason-based cognitive style according to a variety of measures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-08-21 02:33:56"}

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