Transient Scrotal Hyperthermia Induces Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Reveals a Different ADFP Expression Pattern between the Testes and Liver in Mice
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{"title"=>"Transient Scrotal Hyperthermia Induces Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Reveals a Different ADFP Expression Pattern between the Testes and Liver in Mice", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mingxi", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"54892519800"}, {"first_name"=>"Lin", "last_name"=>"Qi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55376692200"}, {"first_name"=>"Yan", "last_name"=>"Zeng", "scopus_author_id"=>"55149904800"}, {"first_name"=>"Yang", "last_name"=>"Yang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56189256800"}, {"first_name"=>"Ye", "last_name"=>"Bi", "scopus_author_id"=>"14420679800"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaodan", "last_name"=>"Shi", "scopus_author_id"=>"41461653600"}, {"first_name"=>"Hui", "last_name"=>"Zhu", "scopus_author_id"=>"35188362500"}, {"first_name"=>"Zuomin", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406094731"}, {"first_name"=>"Jiahao", "last_name"=>"Sha", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102192441"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"365784448", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0045694", "sgr"=>"84867131634", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867131634", "pmid"=>"23056214"}, "id"=>"ff5289f7-7ce0-3456-b39a-4d4bdc5532f7", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: In most mammals, the testes provide a stable environment for spermatogenesis, which depends on a lower temperature than the core body temperature. It has been reported that mild testicular heating safely and reversibly suppresses spermatogenesis, and is under consideration for its potential application as a male contraceptive. Previously, we focused on the molecular mechanism of germ cell apoptosis and anti-apoptotic factors induced by heat treatment in humans and mice. However, the recovery process remains under investigation. RESULTS: In this study, we found that lipid droplets in mouse testes are dramatically increased after a brief period of scrotal hyperthermia, and gradually dissipate following temperature normalization. Analysis of the human testis proteome revealed nine proteins associated with lipid droplets. Two of them, ADFP (also known as ADRP and PLIN2) and TIP47 (also known as PLIN3) may participate in acute lipid droplet formation in mammalian testes. We show that Adfp expression is upregulated after scrotal heat treatment in mice. Surprisingly, we find Adfp lacking its 5'-UTR is observed in Adfp(Δ1/Δ1) mouse testes, but is not detectable in liver. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal testis Adfp transcriptional regulation is tissue-specific, and is associated with lipid droplet accumulation induced by heat. The results also indicate that the testes could retain functional proteins through testes-specific transcriptional regulation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/transient-scrotal-hyperthermia-induces-lipid-droplet-accumulation-reveals-different-adfp-expression", "reader_count"=>9, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/564284"], "description"=>"<p>Microscopic examination reveals that degenerated and apoptotic germ cells (black triangles) are visible in testes harvested 48 hours after a 42°C heat shock treatment, and at different time points in the epididymis (picture with black frame). Sperm (black arrows) are detectable in the recovered epididymis (picture with blue frame). Scale bar = 50 µm, Sc: spermatocyte, Sd: spermatid. A high magnification image is shown in the black rectangle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["treated", "testes", "was", "revealed", "hematoxylin", "eosin"], "article_id"=>234759, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Physiology", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Mingxi Liu", "Lin Qi", "Yan Zeng", "Yang Yang", "Ye Bi", "Xiaodan Shi", "Hui Zhu", "Zuomin Zhou", "Jiahao Sha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphology_of_normal_and_heat_treated_testes_was_revealed_by_hematoxylin_and_eosin_staining_/234759", "title"=>"Morphology of normal and heat treated testes was revealed by hematoxylin and eosin staining.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:19:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/564612"], "description"=>"<p>ADFP and TIP47 are labeled by FITC (green), lipid droplets are labeled by Oil red O (red), and nuclei are labeled by Hoechst 33258 (blue) in frozen sections of fresh testicular tissue. Scale bar = 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["testicular", "adfp", "tip47"], "article_id"=>235095, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Physiology", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Mingxi Liu", "Lin Qi", "Yan Zeng", "Yang Yang", "Ye Bi", "Xiaodan Shi", "Hui Zhu", "Zuomin Zhou", "Jiahao Sha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunofluorescence_of_testicular_ADFP_and_TIP47_in_the_group_1_week_after_treatment_/235095", "title"=>"Immunofluorescence of testicular ADFP and TIP47 in the group 1 week after treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:24:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/564885"], "description"=>"<p>The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor responsive element (PPRE) is located ∼2,000 bp upstream of the transcription start site (A). RT-PCR products are presented using primers targeted to exons 1–3, exons 3–8, and exons 6–8 of the <i>Adfp</i> transcripts of testes and liver from <i>Adfp</i><sup>Δ1/Δ1</sup> mice and wild type mice. β-actin was amplified as the control gene (B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cassette", "mice", "inserted", "intron", "exons"], "article_id"=>235369, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Physiology", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Mingxi Liu", "Lin Qi", "Yan Zeng", "Yang Yang", "Ye Bi", "Xiaodan Shi", "Hui Zhu", "Zuomin Zhou", "Jiahao Sha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_trapping_cassette_of_Adfp_916_1_916_1_mice_is_inserted_in_the_intron_between_exons_1_and_2_before_the_Adfp_translation_start_site_/235369", "title"=>"The trapping cassette of <i>Adfp</i><sup>Δ1/Δ1</sup> mice is inserted in the intron between exons 1 and 2, before the <i>Adfp</i> translation start site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:29:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/300933", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/300953", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/301020", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/301053"], "description"=>"<div><h3>Background</h3><p>In most mammals, the testes provide a stable environment for spermatogenesis, which depends on a lower temperature than the core body temperature. It has been reported that mild testicular heating safely and reversibly suppresses spermatogenesis, and is under consideration for its potential application as a male contraceptive. Previously, we focused on the molecular mechanism of germ cell apoptosis and anti-apoptotic factors induced by heat treatment in humans and mice. However, the recovery process remains under investigation.</p> <h3>Results</h3><p>In this study, we found that lipid droplets in mouse testes are dramatically increased after a brief period of scrotal hyperthermia, and gradually dissipate following temperature normalization. Analysis of the human testis proteome revealed nine proteins associated with lipid droplets. Two of them, ADFP (also known as ADRP and PLIN2) and TIP47 (also known as PLIN3) may participate in acute lipid droplet formation in mammalian testes. We show that Adfp expression is upregulated after scrotal heat treatment in mice. Surprisingly, we find <em>Adfp</em> lacking its 5′-UTR is observed in <em>Adfp</em><sup>Δ1/Δ1</sup> mouse testes, but is not detectable in liver.</p> <h3>Conclusions</h3><p>These results reveal testis <em>Adfp</em> transcriptional regulation is tissue-specific, and is associated with lipid droplet accumulation induced by heat. The results also indicate that the testes could retain functional proteins through testes-specific transcriptional regulation.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transient", "scrotal", "hyperthermia", "induces", "lipid", "droplet", "accumulation", "reveals", "adfp", "testes", "mice"], "article_id"=>119338, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Physiology", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Mingxi Liu", "Lin Qi", "Yan Zeng", "Yang Yang", "Ye Bi", "Xiaodan Shi", "Hui Zhu", "Zuomin Zhou", "Jiahao Sha"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Transient_Scrotal_Hyperthermia_Induces_Lipid_Droplet_Accumulation_and_Reveals_a_Different_ADFP_Expression_Pattern_between_the_Testes_and_Liver_in_Mice/119338", "title"=>"Transient Scrotal Hyperthermia Induces Lipid Droplet Accumulation and Reveals a Different ADFP Expression Pattern between the Testes and Liver in Mice", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 02:35:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/564952"], "description"=>"<p>List of proteins associated with testicular lipid particles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proteins", "testicular", "lipid"], "article_id"=>235435, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Physiology", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Mingxi Liu", "Lin Qi", "Yan Zeng", "Yang Yang", "Ye Bi", "Xiaodan Shi", "Hui Zhu", "Zuomin Zhou", "Jiahao Sha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_proteins_associated_with_testicular_lipid_particles_/235435", "title"=>"List of proteins associated with testicular lipid particles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:30:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/564465"], "description"=>"<p>A high magnification image of regions in the black rectangle is shown in the lower panels. Black triangles point to degenerated and apoptotic germ cells (A). Oil red O staining was quantified by counting number, total area, and average size of staining from discontinuous slides, using three samples per group (B). Bars represent the mean ± SEM, Scale bar = 50 µm. (C) The lipid composition (cholesterol ester [CE] and triglyceride [TG]) in the droplets of testes from the untreated and the 48 hours after treatment groups. (*P<0.01, **P<0.001, ***P<0.0001, ****P<0.00001 compared to the untreated control).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lipid", "droplets", "was", "performed", "staining", "counterstaining", "hematoxylin"], "article_id"=>234942, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Physiology", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Mingxi Liu", "Lin Qi", "Yan Zeng", "Yang Yang", "Ye Bi", "Xiaodan Shi", "Hui Zhu", "Zuomin Zhou", "Jiahao Sha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Morphological_examination_of_lipid_droplets_was_performed_by_oil_red_O_staining_red_and_counterstaining_using_hematoxylin_blue_/234942", "title"=>"Morphological examination of lipid droplets was performed by oil red O staining (red) and counterstaining using hematoxylin (blue).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:22:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/564753"], "description"=>"<p><i>Adfp</i> expression increased 12 hours and 48 hours after heat treatment (A). The protein expression level of Adfp and Tip47 was measured by Western blotting. Adfp is increased in the mouse testes 48 hours after heat treatment (B). Indirect immunofluorescence of Adfp (C) and Tip47 (D) reveals increasing intensity of Adfp 48 hours after heat treatment, especially in the seminiferous tubules associated with large numbers of degenerated and apoptotic germ cells (white arrow). **P<0.001, Scale bar = 100 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrna", "was", "compared", "quantitative"], "article_id"=>235239, "categories"=>["Chemistry", "Physiology", "Cancer", "Biotechnology"], "users"=>["Mingxi Liu", "Lin Qi", "Yan Zeng", "Yang Yang", "Ye Bi", "Xiaodan Shi", "Hui Zhu", "Zuomin Zhou", "Jiahao Sha"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045694.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_mRNA_of_Adfp_and_Tip47_level_was_compared_using_quantitative_RT_PCR_/235239", "title"=>"The mRNA of <i>Adfp</i> and <i>Tip47</i> level was compared using quantitative RT-PCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-10-04 01:27:19"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[307, 540, 660, 756, 847, 936, 1025, 1111, 1199, 1282, 1361, 1432]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[307, 536, 653, 753, 839, 926, 1017, 1103, 1189, 1268, 1348, 1425, 1492, 1557, 1620, 1686, 1759, 1825, 1891, 1950, 2014, 2079, 2141, 2200, 2255]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[308, 500, 607, 700, 782, 876, 957, 1039, 1128, 1214, 1290, 1365, 1431, 1496, 1560, 1634, 1695, 1772, 1839, 1908, 1972, 2043, 2106, 2179, 2246]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[307, 529, 649, 751, 845, 936, 1025, 1113, 1197, 1284, 1360, 1432, 1501, 1570, 1632, 1697, 1765, 1834, 1904, 1972, 2041, 2107, 2170, 2231, 2292]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[308, 539, 659, 759, 852, 941, 1028, 1113, 1197, 1275, 1353, 1423]}]}
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