Zfp423 Promotes Adipogenic Differentiation of Bovine Stromal Vascular Cells
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{"title"=>"Zfp423 Promotes Adipogenic Differentiation of Bovine Stromal Vascular Cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yan", "last_name"=>"Huang", "scopus_author_id"=>"36134546100"}, {"first_name"=>"Arun Kr", "last_name"=>"Das", "scopus_author_id"=>"55547137321"}, {"first_name"=>"Qi Yuan", "last_name"=>"Yang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55365126200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mei Jun", "last_name"=>"Zhu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402909026"}, {"first_name"=>"Min", "last_name"=>"Du", "scopus_author_id"=>"26642943600"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"365833134", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23071815", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0047496", "sgr"=>"84867377898", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84867377898"}, "id"=>"af672be9-ff2b-3a27-8d12-1496e7416335", "abstract"=>"Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was higher (156.1±48.7%, P<0.05) in low adipogenic cells. Following adipogenic differentiation, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) were much higher (239.4±84.1% and 310.7±138.4%, respectively, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells. Over-expression of Zfp423 in stromal vascular cells and cloned low adipogenic cells dramatically increased their adipogenic differentiation, accompanied with the inhibition of TGF-β expression. Zfp423 knockdown by shRNA in high adipogenic cells largely prevented their adipogenic differentiation. The differential regulation of Zfp423 and TGF-β between low and high adipogenic cells is associated with the DNA methylation in their promoters. In conclusion, data show that Zfp423 is a critical regulator of adipogenesis in stromal vascular cells of bovine muscle, and Zfp423 may provide a molecular target for enhancing intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/zfp423-promotes-adipogenic-differentiation-bovine-stromal-vascular-cells", "reader_count"=>14, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/560731"], "description"=>"<p>A) Transmissive scanning of Oil-Red-O stained high and low adipogenic cells. B) Quantification of Oil-Red-O staining by absorbance measurement at 520 nm for high and low adipogenic cells. C) 100× magnified image of stained high adipogenic cells. D) 100× magnified image of stained low adipogenic cells. (*<i>P<</i>0.05, Mean ± SE; n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differention", "cloned", "adipogenic"], "article_id"=>231216, "categories"=>["Physiology"], "users"=>["Yan Huang", "Arun Kr Das", "Qi-Yuan Yang", "Mei-Jun Zhu", "Min Du"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047496.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adipogenic_differention_of_cloned_low_and_high_adipogenic_cells_/231216", "title"=>"Adipogenic differention of cloned low and high adipogenic cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:54:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/560808"], "description"=>"<p>Cloned high and low adipogenic cells were induced adipogenic differentiation with a standard protocol. A) Gene expression before inducing differentiation. B) Gene expression at 6th day of adipogenic differentiation. C) Gene expression after 13 days of differentiation. (*<i>P<</i>0.05, <sup>&</sup><i>P<</i>0.10; Mean ± SE; n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrna", "adipogenic", "fibrogenic", "genes", "adiogenic"], "article_id"=>231298, "categories"=>["Physiology"], "users"=>["Yan Huang", "Arun Kr Das", "Qi-Yuan Yang", "Mei-Jun Zhu", "Min Du"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047496.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_mRNA_expression_of_adipogenic_and_fibrogenic_genes_in_low_and_high_adiogenic_cells_/231298", "title"=>"The mRNA expression of adipogenic and fibrogenic genes in low and high adiogenic cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:54:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/560874"], "description"=>"<p>A) TGF-β content before adipogenic differentiation. B) TGF-β content after 13 days of adipogenic differentiation. (*<i>P<</i>0.05, <sup>&</sup><i>P<</i>0.10; Mean ± SE; n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["adipogenic"], "article_id"=>231372, "categories"=>["Physiology"], "users"=>["Yan Huang", "Arun Kr Das", "Qi-Yuan Yang", "Mei-Jun Zhu", "Min Du"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047496.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transforming_growth_factor_TGF_946_protein_content_in_low_and_high_adipogenic_cells_/231372", "title"=>"Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β protein content in low and high adipogenic cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:55:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/560943"], "description"=>"<p>Cloned high and low adipogenic cells were sorted by the surface marker, PDGFRα, and induced adipogenic differentiation with a standard protocol. A) Gene expression before inducing differentiation. B) Gene expression at 6th day of adipogenic differentiation. C) Gene expression after 13 days of differentiation. (*<i>P<</i>0.05, <sup>&</sup><i>P<</i>0.10; Mean ± SE; n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mrna", "adipogenic", "fibrogenic", "genes", "sorted", "adiogenic", "progenitor"], "article_id"=>231429, "categories"=>["Physiology"], "users"=>["Yan Huang", "Arun Kr Das", "Qi-Yuan Yang", "Mei-Jun Zhu", "Min Du"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047496.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_mRNA_expression_of_adipogenic_and_fibrogenic_genes_in_sorted_low_and_high_adiogenic_progenitor_cells_/231429", "title"=>"The mRNA expression of adipogenic and fibrogenic genes in sorted low and high adiogenic progenitor cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:55:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/561038"], "description"=>"<p>A) Zfp423 expression 3 days after transfection with a vector over-expressing Zfp423. B) expression of adipogenic marker genes PPARγ and C/EBPα after 3 days of Zfp423 over-expression. C) Zfp423 expression efficiency 6 days after transfection with a vector over-expressing Zfp423. D) expression of adipogenic marker genes PPARγ and C/EBPα after 6 days of Zfp423 over-expression. (*<i>P<</i>0.05, <sup>&</sup><i>P<</i>0.10; Mean ± SE; n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differentiation", "stromal", "vascular", "cells", "over-expressing"], "article_id"=>231529, "categories"=>["Physiology"], "users"=>["Yan Huang", "Arun Kr Das", "Qi-Yuan Yang", "Mei-Jun Zhu", "Min Du"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047496.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adipogenic_differentiation_of_stromal_vascular_cells_over_expressing_Zfp423_/231529", "title"=>"Adipogenic differentiation of stromal vascular cells over-expressing Zfp423.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:55:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/561126"], "description"=>"<p>A) adipogenic gene expression in control (eGFP transfected low adipogenic cells), Zfp423 transfected low adipogenic cells, and cells without transfection. B) Transmissive scanning of Oil-Red-O stained cells. C) Quantification of Oil-Red-O staining by absorbance measurement at 520 nm. D) 100× magnified image of high adipogenic cells. E) 100× magnified image of low adipogenic cells. F) 100× magnified image of Zfp423 transfected low adipogenic cells. G) 100× magnified image of eGFP tranfected low adipogenic cells. (<sup>ab</sup>Means bearing different superscripts indicate significant difference, <i>P<</i>0.05, Mean ± SE; n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differentiation", "cloned", "adipogenic", "cells", "zfp423"], "article_id"=>231616, "categories"=>["Physiology"], "users"=>["Yan Huang", "Arun Kr Das", "Qi-Yuan Yang", "Mei-Jun Zhu", "Min Du"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047496.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adipogenic_differentiation_of_cloned_low_adipogenic_cells_after_Zfp423_transfection_/231616", "title"=>"Adipogenic differentiation of cloned low adipogenic cells after Zfp423 transfection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/561261"], "description"=>"<p>A) adipogenic gene expression in low adipogenic cells, high adipogenic cells, high adipogenic (HA) with shZfp423 to knockdown Zfp423, HA with eGFP (transfection control). B) Transmissive scanning of Oil-Red-O stained cells. C) Quantification of Oil-Red-O staining by absorbance measurement at 520 nm. DEFG) 100× magnified images showing Oil-Red-O stained adipocytes. (<sup>ab</sup>Means bearing different superscripts indicate significant difference, <i>P<</i>0.05, Mean ± SE; n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differentiation", "cloned", "adipogenic", "cells", "shzfp423"], "article_id"=>231751, "categories"=>["Physiology"], "users"=>["Yan Huang", "Arun Kr Das", "Qi-Yuan Yang", "Mei-Jun Zhu", "Min Du"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047496.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adipogenic_differentiation_of_cloned_high_adipogenic_cells_after_shZfp423_knockdown_/231751", "title"=>"Adipogenic differentiation of cloned high adipogenic cells after shZfp423 knockdown.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:57:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/561372"], "description"=>"<p>(*<i>P<</i>0.05, Mean ± SE; n = 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bovine"], "article_id"=>231867, "categories"=>["Physiology"], "users"=>["Yan Huang", "Arun Kr Das", "Qi-Yuan Yang", "Mei-Jun Zhu", "Min Du"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047496.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MeDIP_analysis_of_bovine_TGF_946_and_Zfp423_/231867", "title"=>"MeDIP analysis of bovine TGFβ and Zfp423.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:57:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/561413"], "description"=>"<p>List of bovine primers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bovine"], "article_id"=>231908, "categories"=>["Physiology"], "users"=>["Yan Huang", "Arun Kr Das", "Qi-Yuan Yang", "Mei-Jun Zhu", "Min Du"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047496.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_bovine_primers_/231908", "title"=>"List of bovine primers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 21:58:01"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2012", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"67", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2012-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2012-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[307, 540, 660, 756, 847, 936, 1025, 1111, 1199, 1282, 1361, 1432]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[292, 539, 673, 776, 876, 986, 1099, 1210, 1305, 1390, 1476, 1560, 1633, 1726, 1813, 1903, 1969, 2024, 2082, 2153, 2235, 2301, 2366, 2432, 2495]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[331, 557, 677, 777, 868, 960, 1050, 1136, 1223, 1307, 1390, 1466, 1536, 1603, 1673, 1741, 1814, 1889, 1954, 2028, 2096, 2164, 2233, 2305, 2362]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[312, 547, 668, 769, 861, 953, 1046, 1135, 1224, 1307, 1388, 1464, 1536, 1606, 1676, 1744, 1812, 1882, 1954, 2020, 2089, 2155, 2218, 2282, 2344]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[307, 546, 676, 780, 888, 986, 1099, 1202, 1282, 1376, 1468, 1552, 1627, 1713, 1774, 1875, 1944, 2011, 2079, 2133, 2210, 2282, 2358, 2422, 2480]}]}
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