Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World's Oldest Wood Architecture
Publication Date
December 19, 2012
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Willy Tegel, Rengert Elburg, Dietrich Hakelberg, Harald Stäuble, et al
Volume
7
Issue
12
Pages
e51374
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0051374
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23284685
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3526582
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23284685
Web of Science
000312694300021
Scopus
84871286278
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/early-neolithic-water-wells-reveal-worlds-oldest-wood-architecture
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{"title"=>"Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World's Oldest Wood Architecture", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Willy", "last_name"=>"Tegel", "scopus_author_id"=>"36094946100"}, {"first_name"=>"Rengert", "last_name"=>"Elburg", "scopus_author_id"=>"8586283500"}, {"first_name"=>"Dietrich", "last_name"=>"Hakelberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"11040294200"}, {"first_name"=>"Harald", "last_name"=>"Stäuble", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507854690"}, {"first_name"=>"Ulf", "last_name"=>"Büntgen", "scopus_author_id"=>"10140927300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael D.", "last_name"=>"Petraglia", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003671891"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84871286278", "pmid"=>"23284685", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"366299780", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0051374", "sgr"=>"84871286278"}, "id"=>"10b806cc-83d3-3a8b-a1bd-6d5ff0cd39d9", "abstract"=>"The European Neolithization ~6000-4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture. Permanent settlement structures and agricultural production systems required fundamental innovations in technology, subsistence, and resource utilization. Motivation, course, and timing of this transformation, however, remain debatable. Here we present annually resolved and absolutely dated dendroarchaeological information from four wooden water wells of the early Neolithic period that were excavated in Eastern Germany. A total of 151 oak timbers preserved in a waterlogged environment were dated between 5469 and 5098 BC and reveal unexpectedly refined carpentry skills. The recently discovered water wells enable for the first time a detailed insight into the earliest wood architecture and display the technological capabilities of humans ~7000 years ago. The timbered well constructions made of old oak trees feature an unopened tree-ring archive from which annually resolved and absolutely dated environmental data can be culled. Our results question the principle of continuous evolutionary development in prehistoric technology, and contradict the common belief that metal was necessary for complex timber constructions. Early Neolithic craftsmanship now suggests that the first farmers were also the first carpenters.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/early-neolithic-water-wells-reveal-worlds-oldest-wood-architecture", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>6, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>6, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>23, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Materials Science"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>23}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>3, "Spain"=>3}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/522084"], "description"=>"<p>The timbers were cut to length using fire.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["surfaces", "terminal", "ends", "timbers"], "article_id"=>192574, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Willy Tegel", "Rengert Elburg", "Dietrich Hakelberg", "Harald Stäuble", "Ulf Büntgen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Charred_end_grain_surfaces_at_terminal_ends_of_oak_timbers_from_well_A_A_B_/192574", "title"=>"Charred end grain surfaces at terminal ends of oak timbers from well A (<i>A, B</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-19 00:42:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/521929"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>A</i>) Temporal distribution of 147 oak ring width series, indicating the lengths of the individual tree-ring sequences, and the youngest felling date per well construction, based on the presence of waney edges (annually precise) or sapwood (±10 years). The inset shows a 3D reconstruction of the wooden lining of the well from Altscherbitz displaying each tree using a different color. (<i>B</i>) The Expressed Population Signal (dotted line grey) and the inter-series correlation (dotted line black) calculated over 50 years lagged by 25 years along all of the individual samples. (<i>C</i>) Single ring width measurements (green) and their mean (red). (<i>D</i>) Absolute dating of the new Saxon oak chronology (red) against the reference chronology from the Main River Valley <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374#pone.0051374-Lobisser1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a> after 10-year low-pass filtering (<i>r</i> = correlation coefficient, <i>TV</i> = T-value, <i>GL</i> = Gleichläufigkeit).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["samples"], "article_id"=>192428, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Willy Tegel", "Rengert Elburg", "Dietrich Hakelberg", "Harald Stäuble", "Ulf Büntgen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tree_ring_samples_and_chronologies_/192428", "title"=>"Tree-ring samples and chronologies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-19 00:40:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/522198"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>C</i>) 3D model of the well lining set-up using laser images. (<i>D</i>) Sketch of the base frame with wedged tusk tenon joints and the frame with interlocked corner joints.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neolithic", "craftsmanship", "3d", "rendering", "bearing", "marks", "timbers", "cogging"], "article_id"=>192683, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Willy Tegel", "Rengert Elburg", "Dietrich Hakelberg", "Harald Stäuble", "Ulf Büntgen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Early_Neolithic_craftsmanship_from_well_A_3D_laser_rendering_of_A_a_timber_bearing_tool_marks_on_the_surface_B_various_timbers_with_cogging_joints_/192683", "title"=>"Early Neolithic craftsmanship from well A. 3D laser rendering of (<i>A</i>) a timber bearing tool marks on the surface, (<i>B</i>) various timbers with cogging joints.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-19 00:44:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/521786"], "description"=>"<p>LBK wells from (<i>A</i>) Eythra 1, (<i>B</i>) Eythra 2, (<i>C</i>) Brodau 1, and (<i>D</i>) Altscherbitz. (<i>E</i>) Central European loess distribution <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374#pone.0051374-Haase1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a> with the superimposed phases of expansion of the LBK (lines), based on <sup>14</sup>C dates <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374#pone.0051374-Stuble2\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, and the maximum extension of the LBK (light blue) along with the 12 known early Neolithic wells featuring waterlogged wood preservation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["constructions"], "article_id"=>192281, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Willy Tegel", "Rengert Elburg", "Dietrich Hakelberg", "Harald Stäuble", "Ulf Büntgen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>82, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wooden_well_constructions_and_Neolithization_/192281", "title"=>"Wooden well constructions and Neolithization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-19 00:38:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/522441"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>A</i>) Well A during excavation. Within the square wooden lining, a dense deposition of pottery consisting of intact and broken vessels has been uncovered. (<i>B</i>) Selection of intact and restored pots representative of the ceramic spectrum of the LBK, consisting of jars, necked vessels and bowls (to scale, photorealistic renderings of laser scans). (<i>C</i>) Complete ear of Einkorn (<i>Triticum monococcum</i>, 70 mm in length) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374#pone.0051374-Becker1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology"], "article_id"=>192940, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Willy Tegel", "Rengert Elburg", "Dietrich Hakelberg", "Harald Stäuble", "Ulf Büntgen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Finds_from_the_fill_of_well_A_/192940", "title"=>"Finds from the fill of well A.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-19 00:49:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282322", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282488", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282553", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282592", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282654", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282713", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282782", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282857", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/282957", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283022", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283073", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283130", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283190", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283250", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283302", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283357", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283419", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283472", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283521", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283577", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283625", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283671", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283736", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283787", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/283907"], "description"=>"<div><p>The European Neolithization ∼6000−4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture. Permanent settlement structures and agricultural production systems required fundamental innovations in technology, subsistence, and resource utilization. Motivation, course, and timing of this transformation, however, remain debatable. Here we present annually resolved and absolutely dated dendroarchaeological information from four wooden water wells of the early Neolithic period that were excavated in Eastern Germany. A total of 151 oak timbers preserved in a waterlogged environment were dated between 5469 and 5098 BC and reveal unexpectedly refined carpentry skills. The recently discovered water wells enable for the first time a detailed insight into the earliest wood architecture and display the technological capabilities of humans ∼7000 years ago. The timbered well constructions made of old oak trees feature an unopened tree-ring archive from which annually resolved and absolutely dated environmental data can be culled. Our results question the principle of continuous evolutionary development in prehistoric technology, and contradict the common belief that metal was necessary for complex timber constructions. Early Neolithic craftsmanship now suggests that the first farmers were also the first carpenters.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neolithic", "wells", "oldest", "architecture"], "article_id"=>115667, "categories"=>["Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Willy Tegel", "Rengert Elburg", "Dietrich Hakelberg", "Harald Stäuble", "Ulf Büntgen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.s025"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>159, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Early_Neolithic_Water_Wells_Reveal_the_World_s_Oldest_Wood_Architecture__/115667", "title"=>"Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the World's Oldest Wood Architecture", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-19 01:34:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/522307"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>A</i>) Wedged tusk tenon joint. (<i>B</i>) 3D laser rendering of the basal frame.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["plant biology"], "article_id"=>192801, "categories"=>["Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Willy Tegel", "Rengert Elburg", "Dietrich Hakelberg", "Harald Stäuble", "Ulf Büntgen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051374.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Basal_frame_construction_of_well_A_/192801", "title"=>"Basal frame construction of well A.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-19 00:46:41"}

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Relative Metric

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