Tanned or Burned: The Role of Fire in Shaping Physical Seed Dormancy
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{"title"=>"Tanned or Burned: The Role of Fire in Shaping Physical Seed Dormancy", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bruno", "last_name"=>"Moreira", "scopus_author_id"=>"57190226263"}, {"first_name"=>"Juli G.", "last_name"=>"Pausas", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004227580"}], "year"=>2012, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23227267", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84870820450", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0051523", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84870820450", "pui"=>"366234395"}, "id"=>"8a8f3e9f-6b07-38c5-94c3-8b5ab731d3b2", "abstract"=>"Plant species with physical seed dormancy are common in mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Because fire breaks seed dormancy and enhances the recruitment of many species, this trait might be considered adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, to what extent the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire (i.e., for post-fire recruitment) or by summer temperatures in the bare soil (i.e., for recruitment in fire-independent gaps) remains unknown. Our hypothesis is that the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire and thus we predict higher dormancy lost in response to fire than in response to summer temperatures. We tested this hypothesis in six woody species with physical seed dormancy occurring in fire-prone areas across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds from different populations of each species were subject to heat treatments simulating fire (i.e., a single high temperature peak of 100 °C, 120 °C or 150 °C for 5 minutes) and heat treatments simulating summer (i.e., temperature fluctuations; 30 daily cycles of 3 hours at 31 °C, 4 hours at 43 °C, 3 hours at 33 °C and 14 hours at 18 °C). Fire treatments broke dormancy and stimulated germination in all populations of all species. In contrast, summer treatments had no effect over the seed dormancy for most species and only enhanced the germination in Ulex parviflorus, although less than the fire treatments. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean species with physical dormancy, the temperature thresholds necessary to trigger seed germination are better explained as a response to fire than as a response to summer temperatures. The high level of dormancy release by the heat produced by fire might enforce most recruitment to be capitalized into a single post-fire pulse when the most favorable conditions occur. This supports the important role of fire in shaping seed traits.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/tanned-burned-role-fire-shaping-physical-seed-dormancy", "reader_count"=>67, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>23, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>38, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>38}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>23}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Turkey"=>3, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>4}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/530865"], "description"=>"<p>Data from a typically Mediterranean fire-prone area (August 1998, Valencia, eastern Spain <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523#pone.0051523-Baeza1\" target=\"_blank\">[16]</a>). Boxplots represent daily variability in temperature for each hour (n = 28 days). Dashed vertical lines represent the data within 1.5 interquartile range, and open circles are values outside this range (outliers). The continuous line represents the treatment applied to simulate summer temperatures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["observed", "fire-break"], "article_id"=>201361, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bruno Moreira", "Juli G. Pausas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hourly_register_of_daily_temperature_176_C_observed_during_summer_on_the_bare_soil_surface_of_a_fire_break_with_no_slash_/201361", "title"=>"Hourly register of daily temperature (°C) observed during summer on the bare soil surface of a fire-break (with no slash).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-05 00:22:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/530918"], "description"=>"<p>Relationship between the germination (%) after the treatment of 120°C for 5 minutes (Fire scenario, y-axis) and germination after the treatment simulating temperature fluctuations in the soil in open areas during August (Fig. 1; Summer scenario, x-axis). Intraspecific variability (i.e., among populations) is indicated by small symbols (mean population value) emerging from the large symbol (mean species value; F<i>umana thymifolia</i>, n = 2 populations; <i>Cistus salviifolius</i>, n = 6 populations; <i>Cistus albidus</i>, n = 4 populations; <i>Cistus parviflorus</i>, n = 1 population; <i>Cistus creticus</i>, n = 3 populations; <i>Ulex parviflorus</i>, n = 5 populations). The 1∶1 line is also shown (dotted line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["germination"], "article_id"=>201413, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bruno Moreira", "Juli G. Pausas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Germination_in_the_fire_scenario_and_germination_in_the_summer_scenario_/201413", "title"=>"Germination (%) in the fire scenario and germination in the summer scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-05 00:23:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/531062"], "description"=>"<p>Fire treatment refers to the seeds submitted to 100°C, 120°C and 150°C for 5 minutes (Fire100, Fire120 and Fire150, respectively). Summer treatment refers to seeds exposed to temperature fluctuations for 30 days (Summer). For <i>C. albidus</i> and <i>U. parviflorus</i> an additional treatment of 80°C for 5 minutes (Fire80) is also included. The significance of the pairwise comparison between treatments is included ( = : not significant; <: P<0.05, <<: P<0.01). For full details of the statistical analysis see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523#pone-0051523-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523#pone.0051523.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "germination", "untreated", "seeds"], "article_id"=>201558, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bruno Moreira", "Juli G. Pausas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_differences_in_germination_between_untreated_seeds_Control_seeds_subject_to_a_summer_treatment_Summer_and_seeds_subject_to_the_fire_treatments_for_the_six_species_studied_/201558", "title"=>"Summary of the differences in germination between untreated seeds (Control), seeds subject to a summer treatment (Summer) and seeds subject to the fire treatments, for the six species studied.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-05 00:25:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/286771", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/286806", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/286870"], "description"=>"<div><p>Plant species with physical seed dormancy are common in mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems. Because fire breaks seed dormancy and enhances the recruitment of many species, this trait might be considered adaptive in fire-prone environments. However, to what extent the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire (i.e., for post-fire recruitment) or by summer temperatures in the bare soil (i.e., for recruitment in fire-independent gaps) remains unknown. Our hypothesis is that the temperature thresholds that break physical seed dormancy have been shaped by fire and thus we predict higher dormancy lost in response to fire than in response to summer temperatures. We tested this hypothesis in six woody species with physical seed dormancy occurring in fire-prone areas across the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds from different populations of each species were subject to heat treatments simulating fire (i.e., a single high temperature peak of 100°C, 120°C or 150°C for 5 minutes) and heat treatments simulating summer (i.e., temperature fluctuations; 30 daily cycles of 3 hours at 31°C, 4 hours at 43°C, 3 hours at 33°C and 14 hours at 18°C). Fire treatments broke dormancy and stimulated germination in all populations of all species. In contrast, summer treatments had no effect over the seed dormancy for most species and only enhanced the germination in <em>Ulex parviflorus</em>, although less than the fire treatments. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean species with physical dormancy, the temperature thresholds necessary to trigger seed germination are better explained as a response to fire than as a response to summer temperatures. The high level of dormancy release by the heat produced by fire might enforce most recruitment to be capitalized into a single post-fire pulse when the most favorable conditions occur. This supports the important role of fire in shaping seed traits.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tanned", "shaping", "dormancy"], "article_id"=>116519, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bruno Moreira", "Juli G. Pausas"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Tanned_or_Burned_The_Role_of_Fire_in_Shaping_Physical_Seed_Dormancy__/116519", "title"=>"Tanned or Burned: The Role of Fire in Shaping Physical Seed Dormancy", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2012-12-05 01:48:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/531026"], "description"=>"<p>Species means consider the variability between populations. For each species and population (Pop.), mean germination values of treatments with the same letter are not significantly different (P>0.05), after controlling for the false discovery rate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["untreated", "seeds", "treated", "fluctuations", "30", "days", "heat-treated", "populations"], "article_id"=>201513, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bruno Moreira", "Juli G. Pausas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Germination_percentage_mean_SE_of_untreated_seeds_Control_seeds_treated_with_summer_temperature_fluctuations_during_30_days_Summer_30_or_5_days_Summer_5_and_heat_treated_seeds_Fire_treatments_80_C_100_C_120_C_or_150_C_during_5_minutes_for_each_species_an/201513", "title"=>"Germination percentage (mean ± SE) of untreated seeds (Control), seeds treated with summer temperature fluctuations during 30 days (Summer 30) or 5 days (Summer 5) and heat-treated seeds (Fire treatments; 80°C, 100°C, 120°C or 150°C during 5 minutes), for each species and population (location of the different populations is given in Table S1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-05 00:25:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/530953"], "description"=>"<p>The <i>x</i>-axis represents an increase in the heat doses reaching the soil (during summer or fires). The <i>y-</i>axis represents the proportion of recruitment associated with dormancy release, for species with different levels of fire-dependent recruitment. For some species, fire is not the main factor shaping seed dormancy and thus they have fire-independent dormancy release and recruitment (dashed line). However, species living in fire prone mediterranean ecosystems have mostly fire-dependent dormancy release, with recruitment strictly related to fire (obligate fire-dependent dormancy release, continuous line) or with a small proportion of recruitment independent of fire (facultative fire-dependent dormancy release, dotted line).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["describing", "recruitment", "mediterranean", "ecosystems"], "article_id"=>201454, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bruno Moreira", "Juli G. Pausas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_model_describing_recruitment_dynamics_in_mediterranean_ecosystems_for_species_with_physical_dormancy_/201454", "title"=>"Conceptual model describing recruitment dynamics in mediterranean ecosystems for species with physical dormancy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2012-12-05 00:24:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/531090"], "description"=>"<p>Specific location of each population is given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523#pone.0051523.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["populations", "studied"], "article_id"=>201589, "categories"=>["Plant Biology", "Evolutionary Biology"], "users"=>["Bruno Moreira", "Juli G. Pausas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0051523.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_species_number_of_populations_studied_per_species_Pop_location_Country_and_date_month_year_of_the_seed_collection_and_seed_age_at_the_time_of_the_experiment_in_months_/201589", "title"=>"List of species, number of populations studied per species (#Pop), location (Country) and date (month/year) of the seed collection, and seed age at the time of the experiment (in months).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2012-12-05 00:26:29"}

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