Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa
Publication Date
March 04, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Fiona Maisels, Samantha Strindberg, Stephen Blake, George Wittemyer, et al
Volume
8
Issue
3
Pages
e59469
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0059469
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23469289
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3587600
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23469289
Web of Science
000315634900100
Scopus
84874625280
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/devastating-decline-forest-elephants-central-africa
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"last_name"=>"Serckx", "scopus_author_id"=>"55613849200"}, {"first_name"=>"Emma", "last_name"=>"Stokes", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007093323"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"Turkalo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508245443"}, {"first_name"=>"Hilde", "last_name"=>"Vanleeuwe", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506202233"}, {"first_name"=>"Ashley", "last_name"=>"Vosper", "scopus_author_id"=>"55360030600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ymke", "last_name"=>"Warren", "scopus_author_id"=>"18435008400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"368465198", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0059469", "sgr"=>"84874625280", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84874625280", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23469289"}, "id"=>"15adfa9d-0ac0-3a81-9aa1-8e17af376b4d", "abstract"=>"African forest elephants- taxonomically and functionally unique-are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork) revealed that population size declined by ca. 62% between 2002-2011, and the taxon lost 30% of its geographical range. The population is now less than 10% of its potential size, occupying less than 25% of its potential range. High human population density, hunting intensity, absence of law enforcement, poor governance, and proximity to expanding infrastructure are the strongest predictors of decline. To save the remaining African forest elephants, illegal poaching for ivory and encroachment into core elephant habitat must be stopped. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976712"], "description"=>"<p>Predictions are shown for (A) 2002 and (B) 2011 for the model with variables: survey year∧, Human Influence Index***, corruption*** and the presence/absence of guards***, and (C) 2002 and (D) 2011 for the model with variables: survey year∧, proximity to road∧, human population density***, corruption*** and the presence/absence of guards*** (P-values are: ‘***’ <0.001 and ‘∧’ <0.1). Increasingly darker shades of green correspond to higher densities, grey represents extremely low elephant density range (the first interval: 0–100 elephant dung piles/km<sup>2</sup>) and white is non-habitat (80 survey sites outlined in red). Cutpoints are: 0; 100; 250; 500; 1,000; 1,500; 3,000; 5,000; and 7,500 dung piles/km<sup>2</sup>. Countries 1–5 are: Cameroon; Central African Republic; Republic of Congo; DRC; Gabon.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Extinction risk", "Population size", "Relative abundance distribution", "Conservation science", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "dung", "african"], "article_id"=>644132, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fiona Maisels", "Samantha Strindberg", "Stephen Blake", "George Wittemyer", "John Hart", "Elizabeth A. Williamson", "Rostand Aba’a", "Gaspard Abitsi", "Ruffin D. Ambahe", "Fidèl Amsini", "Parfait C. Bakabana", "Thurston Cleveland Hicks", "Rosine E. Bayogo", "Martha Bechem", "Rene L. Beyers", "Anicet N. Bezangoye", "Patrick Boundja", "Nicolas Bout", "Marc Ella Akou", "Lambert Bene Bene", "Bernard Fosso", "Elizabeth Greengrass", "Falk Grossmann", "Clement Ikamba-Nkulu", "Omari Ilambu", "Bila-Isia Inogwabini", "Fortune Iyenguet", "Franck Kiminou", "Max Kokangoye", "Deo Kujirakwinja", "Stephanie Latour", "Innocent Liengola", "Quevain Mackaya", "Jacob Madidi", "Bola Madzoké", "Calixte Makoumbou", "Guy-Aimé Malanda", "Richard Malonga", "Olivier Mbani", "Valentin A. Mbendzo", "Edgar Ambassa", "Albert Ekinde", "Yves Mihindou", "Bethan J. Morgan", "Prosper Motsaba", "Gabin Moukala", "Anselme Mounguengui", "Brice S. Mowawa", "Christian Ndzai", "Stuart Nixon", "Pele Nkumu", "Fabian Nzolani", "Lilian Pintea", "Andrew Plumptre", "Hugo Rainey", "Bruno Bokoto de Semboli", "Adeline Serckx", "Emma Stokes", "Andrea Turkalo", "Hilde Vanleeuwe", "Ashley Vosper", "Ymke Warren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elephant_dung_density_and_range_reduction_across_the_Central_African_forests_/644132", "title"=>"Elephant dung density and range reduction across the Central African forests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:48:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976717"], "description"=>"<p>Results are shown as a percentage of the total area of potential elephant habitat overall (A & B) and by country (C & D) for the predictive model with variables: (A & C) survey year, Human Influence Index, corruption and the presence/absence of guards, and (B & D) survey year, proximity to road, human population density, corruption and the presence/absence of guards. The dung density (per km<sup>2</sup>) intervals are unequal and correspond to the following elephant population categories: extremely low density (0–100), very low (100–250), low (250–500), medium (500–1,000), high (1,000–3,000) and very high (3,000–7,500). With the loss of very high elephant populations in 2011, there is a significant shift into the lower density intervals over the nine years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Extinction risk", "Population size", "Relative abundance distribution", "Conservation science", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "dung", "african"], "article_id"=>644137, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fiona Maisels", "Samantha Strindberg", "Stephen Blake", "George Wittemyer", "John Hart", "Elizabeth A. Williamson", "Rostand Aba’a", "Gaspard Abitsi", "Ruffin D. Ambahe", "Fidèl Amsini", "Parfait C. Bakabana", "Thurston Cleveland Hicks", "Rosine E. Bayogo", "Martha Bechem", "Rene L. Beyers", "Anicet N. Bezangoye", "Patrick Boundja", "Nicolas Bout", "Marc Ella Akou", "Lambert Bene Bene", "Bernard Fosso", "Elizabeth Greengrass", "Falk Grossmann", "Clement Ikamba-Nkulu", "Omari Ilambu", "Bila-Isia Inogwabini", "Fortune Iyenguet", "Franck Kiminou", "Max Kokangoye", "Deo Kujirakwinja", "Stephanie Latour", "Innocent Liengola", "Quevain Mackaya", "Jacob Madidi", "Bola Madzoké", "Calixte Makoumbou", "Guy-Aimé Malanda", "Richard Malonga", "Olivier Mbani", "Valentin A. Mbendzo", "Edgar Ambassa", "Albert Ekinde", "Yves Mihindou", "Bethan J. Morgan", "Prosper Motsaba", "Gabin Moukala", "Anselme Mounguengui", "Brice S. Mowawa", "Christian Ndzai", "Stuart Nixon", "Pele Nkumu", "Fabian Nzolani", "Lilian Pintea", "Andrew Plumptre", "Hugo Rainey", "Bruno Bokoto de Semboli", "Adeline Serckx", "Emma Stokes", "Andrea Turkalo", "Hilde Vanleeuwe", "Ashley Vosper", "Ymke Warren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_change_in_elephant_dung_density_km_2_distribution_during_2002_8211_2011_across_the_Central_African_forests_/644137", "title"=>"Estimated change in elephant dung density (/km<sup>2</sup>) distribution during 2002–2011 across the Central African forests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:51:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976722"], "description"=>"<p>Results are shown for the top-ranked model with variables: (A) hunter sign*, (B) survey year*, (C) proximity to roads∧, (D) human population density***, (E) corruption*** (higher values = less corrupt) and presence/absence of guards***. Also shown is (F) the Human Influence Index (HII) for the model with proximity to road and human population density variables replaced by the HII, i.e. one of the top-ranking models with variables: hunter sign**, survey year*, HII*, corruption***, and presence/absence of guards***. P-value significance codes are: ‘***’<0.001, ‘**’<0.01, ‘*’<0.05, and ‘∧’<0.1. Plot components are: Estimates on the scale of the linear predictor (solid lines) with the y-axis scale for each variable selected to optimally display the results, confidence intervals (dashed lines), and explanatory variable values of observations with a focus on the core 95% of values for hunter sign, proximity to road and human population density (rug plot - short vertical bars along each x-axis showing the x value for each site).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Extinction risk", "Population size", "Relative abundance distribution", "Conservation science", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "conditional", "dependence", "dung", "top-ranked", "multi-variable"], "article_id"=>644142, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fiona Maisels", "Samantha Strindberg", "Stephen Blake", "George Wittemyer", "John Hart", "Elizabeth A. Williamson", "Rostand Aba’a", "Gaspard Abitsi", "Ruffin D. Ambahe", "Fidèl Amsini", "Parfait C. Bakabana", "Thurston Cleveland Hicks", "Rosine E. Bayogo", "Martha Bechem", "Rene L. Beyers", "Anicet N. Bezangoye", "Patrick Boundja", "Nicolas Bout", "Marc Ella Akou", "Lambert Bene Bene", "Bernard Fosso", "Elizabeth Greengrass", "Falk Grossmann", "Clement Ikamba-Nkulu", "Omari Ilambu", "Bila-Isia Inogwabini", "Fortune Iyenguet", "Franck Kiminou", "Max Kokangoye", "Deo Kujirakwinja", "Stephanie Latour", "Innocent Liengola", "Quevain Mackaya", "Jacob Madidi", "Bola Madzoké", "Calixte Makoumbou", "Guy-Aimé Malanda", "Richard Malonga", "Olivier Mbani", "Valentin A. Mbendzo", "Edgar Ambassa", "Albert Ekinde", "Yves Mihindou", "Bethan J. Morgan", "Prosper Motsaba", "Gabin Moukala", "Anselme Mounguengui", "Brice S. Mowawa", "Christian Ndzai", "Stuart Nixon", "Pele Nkumu", "Fabian Nzolani", "Lilian Pintea", "Andrew Plumptre", "Hugo Rainey", "Bruno Bokoto de Semboli", "Adeline Serckx", "Emma Stokes", "Andrea Turkalo", "Hilde Vanleeuwe", "Ashley Vosper", "Ymke Warren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_conditional_dependence_of_elephant_dung_density_for_top_ranked_multi_variable_models_including_hunter_sign_/644142", "title"=>"Estimated conditional dependence of elephant dung density for top-ranked multi-variable models including hunter sign.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:52:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976724"], "description"=>"<p>Summaries shown are the natural logarithm of: (A) elephant dung encounter rate per 100 km grouped by the presence/absence of wildlife guards, (B) elephant dung encounter rate per 100 km grouped by the level of hunting intensity (group cutpoints are 0.6 and 1.75 hunter sign/km), and (C) hunter-sign frequency per 100 km grouped by the presence/absence of wildlife guards. Box-widths are proportional to the number of observations in each group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Extinction risk", "Population size", "Relative abundance distribution", "Conservation science", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "indices", "abundance"], "article_id"=>644144, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fiona Maisels", "Samantha Strindberg", "Stephen Blake", "George Wittemyer", "John Hart", "Elizabeth A. Williamson", "Rostand Aba’a", "Gaspard Abitsi", "Ruffin D. Ambahe", "Fidèl Amsini", "Parfait C. Bakabana", "Thurston Cleveland Hicks", "Rosine E. Bayogo", "Martha Bechem", "Rene L. Beyers", "Anicet N. Bezangoye", "Patrick Boundja", "Nicolas Bout", "Marc Ella Akou", "Lambert Bene Bene", "Bernard Fosso", "Elizabeth Greengrass", "Falk Grossmann", "Clement Ikamba-Nkulu", "Omari Ilambu", "Bila-Isia Inogwabini", "Fortune Iyenguet", "Franck Kiminou", "Max Kokangoye", "Deo Kujirakwinja", "Stephanie Latour", "Innocent Liengola", "Quevain Mackaya", "Jacob Madidi", "Bola Madzoké", "Calixte Makoumbou", "Guy-Aimé Malanda", "Richard Malonga", "Olivier Mbani", "Valentin A. Mbendzo", "Edgar Ambassa", "Albert Ekinde", "Yves Mihindou", "Bethan J. Morgan", "Prosper Motsaba", "Gabin Moukala", "Anselme Mounguengui", "Brice S. Mowawa", "Christian Ndzai", "Stuart Nixon", "Pele Nkumu", "Fabian Nzolani", "Lilian Pintea", "Andrew Plumptre", "Hugo Rainey", "Bruno Bokoto de Semboli", "Adeline Serckx", "Emma Stokes", "Andrea Turkalo", "Hilde Vanleeuwe", "Ashley Vosper", "Ymke Warren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boxplots_of_indices_of_elephant_abundance_and_hunting_intensity_/644144", "title"=>"Boxplots of indices of elephant abundance and hunting intensity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:52:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976729"], "description"=>"<p>Results are shown for the 80 survey sites in Central Africa included in this study. Grey shading represents forest cover.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Extinction risk", "Population size", "Relative abundance distribution", "Conservation science", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "dung"], "article_id"=>644148, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fiona Maisels", "Samantha Strindberg", "Stephen Blake", "George Wittemyer", "John Hart", "Elizabeth A. Williamson", "Rostand Aba’a", "Gaspard Abitsi", "Ruffin D. Ambahe", "Fidèl Amsini", "Parfait C. Bakabana", "Thurston Cleveland Hicks", "Rosine E. Bayogo", "Martha Bechem", "Rene L. Beyers", "Anicet N. Bezangoye", "Patrick Boundja", "Nicolas Bout", "Marc Ella Akou", "Lambert Bene Bene", "Bernard Fosso", "Elizabeth Greengrass", "Falk Grossmann", "Clement Ikamba-Nkulu", "Omari Ilambu", "Bila-Isia Inogwabini", "Fortune Iyenguet", "Franck Kiminou", "Max Kokangoye", "Deo Kujirakwinja", "Stephanie Latour", "Innocent Liengola", "Quevain Mackaya", "Jacob Madidi", "Bola Madzoké", "Calixte Makoumbou", "Guy-Aimé Malanda", "Richard Malonga", "Olivier Mbani", "Valentin A. Mbendzo", "Edgar Ambassa", "Albert Ekinde", "Yves Mihindou", "Bethan J. Morgan", "Prosper Motsaba", "Gabin Moukala", "Anselme Mounguengui", "Brice S. Mowawa", "Christian Ndzai", "Stuart Nixon", "Pele Nkumu", "Fabian Nzolani", "Lilian Pintea", "Andrew Plumptre", "Hugo Rainey", "Bruno Bokoto de Semboli", "Adeline Serckx", "Emma Stokes", "Andrea Turkalo", "Hilde Vanleeuwe", "Ashley Vosper", "Ymke Warren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Encounter_rate_of_elephant_dung_per_kilometre_/644148", "title"=>"Encounter rate of elephant dung per kilometre.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:53:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976734"], "description"=>"<p>Results are shown for the 80 survey sites in Central Africa included in this study. Grey shading represents forest cover.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Extinction risk", "Population size", "Relative abundance distribution", "Conservation science", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Mammalogy"], "article_id"=>644153, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fiona Maisels", "Samantha Strindberg", "Stephen Blake", "George Wittemyer", "John Hart", "Elizabeth A. Williamson", "Rostand Aba’a", "Gaspard Abitsi", "Ruffin D. Ambahe", "Fidèl Amsini", "Parfait C. Bakabana", "Thurston Cleveland Hicks", "Rosine E. Bayogo", "Martha Bechem", "Rene L. Beyers", "Anicet N. Bezangoye", "Patrick Boundja", "Nicolas Bout", "Marc Ella Akou", "Lambert Bene Bene", "Bernard Fosso", "Elizabeth Greengrass", "Falk Grossmann", "Clement Ikamba-Nkulu", "Omari Ilambu", "Bila-Isia Inogwabini", "Fortune Iyenguet", "Franck Kiminou", "Max Kokangoye", "Deo Kujirakwinja", "Stephanie Latour", "Innocent Liengola", "Quevain Mackaya", "Jacob Madidi", "Bola Madzoké", "Calixte Makoumbou", "Guy-Aimé Malanda", "Richard Malonga", "Olivier Mbani", "Valentin A. Mbendzo", "Edgar Ambassa", "Albert Ekinde", "Yves Mihindou", "Bethan J. Morgan", "Prosper Motsaba", "Gabin Moukala", "Anselme Mounguengui", "Brice S. Mowawa", "Christian Ndzai", "Stuart Nixon", "Pele Nkumu", "Fabian Nzolani", "Lilian Pintea", "Andrew Plumptre", "Hugo Rainey", "Bruno Bokoto de Semboli", "Adeline Serckx", "Emma Stokes", "Andrea Turkalo", "Hilde Vanleeuwe", "Ashley Vosper", "Ymke Warren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Encounter_rate_of_hunter_sign_per_kilometre_/644153", "title"=>"Encounter rate of hunter sign per kilometre.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:54:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976737"], "description"=>"<p>Results are shown for 3 time periods: pre-1970s and 1989 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469#pone.0059469-Michelmore1\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a> and 2011 (this study).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Extinction risk", "Population size", "Relative abundance distribution", "Conservation science", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "breakdown", "elephants"], "article_id"=>644155, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fiona Maisels", "Samantha Strindberg", "Stephen Blake", "George Wittemyer", "John Hart", "Elizabeth A. Williamson", "Rostand Aba’a", "Gaspard Abitsi", "Ruffin D. Ambahe", "Fidèl Amsini", "Parfait C. Bakabana", "Thurston Cleveland Hicks", "Rosine E. Bayogo", "Martha Bechem", "Rene L. Beyers", "Anicet N. Bezangoye", "Patrick Boundja", "Nicolas Bout", "Marc Ella Akou", "Lambert Bene Bene", "Bernard Fosso", "Elizabeth Greengrass", "Falk Grossmann", "Clement Ikamba-Nkulu", "Omari Ilambu", "Bila-Isia Inogwabini", "Fortune Iyenguet", "Franck Kiminou", "Max Kokangoye", "Deo Kujirakwinja", "Stephanie Latour", "Innocent Liengola", "Quevain Mackaya", "Jacob Madidi", "Bola Madzoké", "Calixte Makoumbou", "Guy-Aimé Malanda", "Richard Malonga", "Olivier Mbani", "Valentin A. Mbendzo", "Edgar Ambassa", "Albert Ekinde", "Yves Mihindou", "Bethan J. Morgan", "Prosper Motsaba", "Gabin Moukala", "Anselme Mounguengui", "Brice S. Mowawa", "Christian Ndzai", "Stuart Nixon", "Pele Nkumu", "Fabian Nzolani", "Lilian Pintea", "Andrew Plumptre", "Hugo Rainey", "Bruno Bokoto de Semboli", "Adeline Serckx", "Emma Stokes", "Andrea Turkalo", "Hilde Vanleeuwe", "Ashley Vosper", "Ymke Warren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_breakdown_of_the_total_number_of_forest_elephants_by_country_/644155", "title"=>"Percentage breakdown of the total number of forest elephants by country.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:54:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976742", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976749", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976757", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976763", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976766", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976768", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976771", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976774", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976776", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/976781"], "description"=>"<div><p>African forest elephants– taxonomically and functionally unique–are being poached at accelerating rates, but we lack range-wide information on the repercussions. Analysis of the largest survey dataset ever assembled for forest elephants (80 foot-surveys; covering 13,000 km; 91,600 person-days of fieldwork) revealed that population size declined by ca. 62% between 2002–2011, and the taxon lost 30% of its geographical range. The population is now less than 10% of its potential size, occupying less than 25% of its potential range. High human population density, hunting intensity, absence of law enforcement, poor governance, and proximity to expanding infrastructure are the strongest predictors of decline. To save the remaining African forest elephants, illegal poaching for ivory and encroachment into core elephant habitat must be stopped. In addition, the international demand for ivory, which fuels illegal trade, must be dramatically reduced.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Ecological metrics", "Extinction risk", "Population size", "Relative abundance distribution", "Conservation science", "Species extinction", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "elephants", "africa"], "article_id"=>644158, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fiona Maisels", "Samantha Strindberg", "Stephen Blake", "George Wittemyer", "John Hart", "Elizabeth A. Williamson", "Rostand Aba’a", "Gaspard Abitsi", "Ruffin D. Ambahe", "Fidèl Amsini", "Parfait C. Bakabana", "Thurston Cleveland Hicks", "Rosine E. Bayogo", "Martha Bechem", "Rene L. Beyers", "Anicet N. Bezangoye", "Patrick Boundja", "Nicolas Bout", "Marc Ella Akou", "Lambert Bene Bene", "Bernard Fosso", "Elizabeth Greengrass", "Falk Grossmann", "Clement Ikamba-Nkulu", "Omari Ilambu", "Bila-Isia Inogwabini", "Fortune Iyenguet", "Franck Kiminou", "Max Kokangoye", "Deo Kujirakwinja", "Stephanie Latour", "Innocent Liengola", "Quevain Mackaya", "Jacob Madidi", "Bola Madzoké", "Calixte Makoumbou", "Guy-Aimé Malanda", "Richard Malonga", "Olivier Mbani", "Valentin A. Mbendzo", "Edgar Ambassa", "Albert Ekinde", "Yves Mihindou", "Bethan J. Morgan", "Prosper Motsaba", "Gabin Moukala", "Anselme Mounguengui", "Brice S. Mowawa", "Christian Ndzai", "Stuart Nixon", "Pele Nkumu", "Fabian Nzolani", "Lilian Pintea", "Andrew Plumptre", "Hugo Rainey", "Bruno Bokoto de Semboli", "Adeline Serckx", "Emma Stokes", "Andrea Turkalo", "Hilde Vanleeuwe", "Ashley Vosper", "Ymke Warren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059469.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Devastating_Decline_of_Forest_Elephants_in_Central_Africa__/644158", "title"=>"Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-03-05 09:55:12"}

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Relative Metric

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