A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Training Using a Visual Speed of Processing Intervention in Middle Aged and Older Adults
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{"title"=>"A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Training Using a Visual Speed of Processing Intervention in Middle Aged and Older Adults", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fredric D.", "last_name"=>"Wolinsky", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007026939"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark W.", "last_name"=>"Vander Weg", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602647106"}, {"first_name"=>"M. Bryant", "last_name"=>"Howren", "scopus_author_id"=>"26537685100"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael P.", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"55643154400"}, {"first_name"=>"Megan M.", "last_name"=>"Dotson", "scopus_author_id"=>"52363655000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0061624", "sgr"=>"84877047918", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84877047918", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"23650501", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"368847490"}, "id"=>"0ac11a18-6bac-3c8a-aea0-e6c955902e9c", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Age-related cognitive decline is common and may lead to substantial difficulties and disabilities in everyday life. We hypothesized that 10 hours of visual speed of processing training would prevent age-related declines and potentially improve cognitive processing speed.\\n\\nMETHODS: Within two age bands (50-64 and ≥ 65) 681 patients were randomized to (a) three computerized visual speed of processing training arms (10 hours on-site, 14 hours on-site, or 10 hours at-home) or (b) an on-site attention control group using computerized crossword puzzles for 10 hours. The primary outcome was the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test, and the secondary outcomes were the Trail Making (Trails) A and B Tests, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Stroop Color and Word Tests, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and the Digit Vigilance Test (DVT), which were assessed at baseline and at one year. 620 participants (91%) completed the study and were included in the analyses. Linear mixed models were used with Blom rank transformations within age bands.\\n\\nRESULTS: All intervention groups had (p<0.05) small to medium standardized effect size improvements on UFOV (Cohen's d = -0.322 to -0.579, depending on intervention arm), Trails A (d = -0.204 to -0.265), Trails B (d = -0.225 to -0.320), SDMT (d = 0.263 to 0.351), and Stroop Word (d = 0.240 to 0.271). Converted to years of protection against age-related cognitive declines, these effects reflect 3.0 to 4.1 years on UFOV, 2.2 to 3.5 years on Trails A, 1.5 to 2.0 years on Trails B, 5.4 to 6.6 years on SDMT, and 2.3 to 2.7 years on Stroop Word.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Visual speed of processing training delivered on-site or at-home to middle-aged or older adults using standard home computers resulted in stabilization or improvement in several cognitive function tests. Widespread implementation of this intervention is feasible.\\n\\nTRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT-01165463.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/randomized-controlled-trial-cognitive-training-using-visual-speed-processing-intervention-middle-age-9", "reader_count"=>147, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>26, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>26, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>10, "Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>24, "Neuroscience"=>10, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>57, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>24}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>57}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>10}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>8, "Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>4, "Cuba"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "China"=>1, "Poland"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>9}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050884"], "description"=>"1<p>Effects obtained from estimating the models shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624#pone-0061624-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> using the original scalar values (i.e., non-Blom rank transformed scores). Those effects were then divided by the annualized age declines determined as documented in footnotes 2-6 below.</p>2<p>Annualized age declines of 15.6 ms were derived by using the Step 5 linear regression model from Edwards et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624#pone.0061624-Edwards4\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a> on the baseline UFOV composite (three subtests) among the no-contact controls in ACTIVE.</p>3<p>Annualized age declines of 1.26 seconds in Trails A were based on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624#pone-0061624-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> in Tombaugh <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624#pone.0061624-Tombaugh1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a> for 65–69 vs. 70–74 year olds.</p>4<p>Annualized age declines of 3.82 seconds in Trails B were based on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624#pone-0061624-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> in Tombaugh <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624#pone.0061624-Tombaugh1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a> for 65–69 vs. 70–74 year olds.</p>5<p>Annualized age declines of 0.41 correct symbol-digit pairs in SDMT were based on Table 9.8 in Lezak et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624#pone.0061624-Lezak1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a> for 55–64 vs. 65–74 year olds.</p>6<p>Annualized age declines of 1.22 words in the Stroop Word test were based on the regression results for 60–87 year olds in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624#pone-0061624-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> of Vogel et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624#pone.0061624-Vogel1\" target=\"_blank\">[54]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "aging", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "geriatrics", "Non-clinical medicine", "Evidence-based medicine", "Primary care", "Public health", "preventive medicine", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "standardized", "years", "age-related", "declines", "comparator"], "article_id"=>695712, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Fredric D. Wolinsky", "Mark W. Vander Weg", "M. Bryant Howren", "Michael P. Jones", "Megan M. Dotson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conversion_of_Standardized_Effects_1_into_Years_of_Protection_Against_Age_Related_Declines_and_or_Years_of_Improvement_in_Cognitive_Performance_the_Comparator_is_Always_the_Attention_Control_Group_N_620_/695712", "title"=>"Conversion of Standardized Effects<sup>1</sup> into Years of Protection Against Age-Related Declines and/or Years of Improvement in Cognitive Performance (the Comparator is Always the Attention Control Group), N = 620.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:35:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050885", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050887"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Age-related cognitive decline is common and may lead to substantial difficulties and disabilities in everyday life. We hypothesized that 10 hours of visual speed of processing training would prevent age-related declines and potentially improve cognitive processing speed.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Within two age bands (50–64 and≥65) 681 patients were randomized to (a) three computerized visual speed of processing training arms (10 hours on-site, 14 hours on-site, or 10 hours at-home) or (b) an on-site attention control group using computerized crossword puzzles for 10 hours. The primary outcome was the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test, and the secondary outcomes were the Trail Making (Trails) A and B Tests, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Stroop Color and Word Tests, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and the Digit Vigilance Test (DVT), which were assessed at baseline and at one year. 620 participants (91%) completed the study and were included in the analyses. Linear mixed models were used with Blom rank transformations within age bands.</p><p>Results</p><p>All intervention groups had (<i>p</i><0.05) small to medium standardized effect size improvements on UFOV (Cohen's <i>d</i> = −0.322 to −0.579, depending on intervention arm), Trails A (<i>d</i> = −0.204 to −0.265), Trails B (<i>d</i> = −0.225 to −0.320), SDMT (<i>d</i> = 0.263 to 0.351), and Stroop Word (<i>d</i> = 0.240 to 0.271). Converted to years of protection against age-related cognitive declines, these effects reflect 3.0 to 4.1 years on UFOV, 2.2 to 3.5 years on Trails A, 1.5 to 2.0 years on Trails B, 5.4 to 6.6 years on SDMT, and 2.3 to 2.7 years on Stroop Word.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Visual speed of processing training delivered on-site or at-home to middle-aged or older adults using standard home computers resulted in stabilization or improvement in several cognitive function tests. Widespread implementation of this intervention is feasible.</p><p>Trial Registration</p><p>ClinicalTrials.gov <a href=\"http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01165463?term=IHAMS&rank=1\" target=\"_blank\">NCT-01165463</a></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "aging", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "geriatrics", "Non-clinical medicine", "Evidence-based medicine", "Primary care", "Public health", "preventive medicine", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "randomized", "controlled", "aged", "older"], "article_id"=>695713, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Fredric D. Wolinsky", "Mark W. Vander Weg", "M. Bryant Howren", "Michael P. Jones", "Megan M. Dotson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Randomized_Controlled_Trial_of_Cognitive_Training_Using_a_Visual_Speed_of_Processing_Intervention_in_Middle_Aged_and_Older_Adults_/695713", "title"=>"A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Training Using a Visual Speed of Processing Intervention in Middle Aged and Older Adults", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:35:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050875"], "description"=>"<p>CONSORT Flow Chart for the IHAMS Study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "aging", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "geriatrics", "Non-clinical medicine", "Evidence-based medicine", "Primary care", "Public health", "preventive medicine", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "ihams"], "article_id"=>695704, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Fredric D. Wolinsky", "Mark W. Vander Weg", "M. Bryant Howren", "Michael P. Jones", "Megan M. Dotson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CONSORT_Flow_Chart_for_the_IHAMS_Study_/695704", "title"=>"CONSORT Flow Chart for the IHAMS Study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:35:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050878"], "description"=>"<p>How the Visual Speed of Processing Training Program Appears to the User.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "aging", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "geriatrics", "Non-clinical medicine", "Evidence-based medicine", "Primary care", "Public health", "preventive medicine", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "appears"], "article_id"=>695706, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Fredric D. Wolinsky", "Mark W. Vander Weg", "M. Bryant Howren", "Michael P. Jones", "Megan M. Dotson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_How_the_Visual_Speed_of_Processing_Training_Program_Appears_to_the_User_/695706", "title"=>"How the Visual Speed of Processing Training Program Appears to the User.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:35:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050879"], "description"=>"<p>Plots of Blom Rank Transformed Means on the Useful Field of View by Treatment Group at Baseline and One Year.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "aging", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "geriatrics", "Non-clinical medicine", "Evidence-based medicine", "Primary care", "Public health", "preventive medicine", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "blom", "transformed", "means", "baseline"], "article_id"=>695707, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Fredric D. Wolinsky", "Mark W. Vander Weg", "M. Bryant Howren", "Michael P. Jones", "Megan M. Dotson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_of_Blom_Rank_Transformed_Means_on_the_Useful_Field_of_View_by_Treatment_Group_at_Baseline_and_One_Year_/695707", "title"=>"Plots of Blom Rank Transformed Means on the Useful Field of View by Treatment Group at Baseline and One Year.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:35:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050881"], "description"=>"*<p>p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001</p><p><u>Notes</u>: Cell entries are Cohen's <i>d</i> statistics (95% confidence intervals) for visual speed of processing training on the baseline to one-year changes between each training group vs. the attention control group on the Blom rank transformed (separately within age strata) scores, and are directly interpretable as standardized effect sizes. Cell p values are from Dunnett test comparisons to the attention control group. None of the age band main effects were statistically significant, and none of the interaction terms involving age band were statistically significant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "aging", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "geriatrics", "Non-clinical medicine", "Evidence-based medicine", "Primary care", "Public health", "preventive medicine", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "linear", "blom", "transformed", "outcomes", "comparator"], "article_id"=>695709, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Fredric D. Wolinsky", "Mark W. Vander Weg", "M. Bryant Howren", "Michael P. Jones", "Megan M. Dotson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intent_to_Treat_Linear_Mixed_Model_Results_for_the_Blom_Rank_Transformed_Primary_and_Secondary_Outcomes_the_Comparator_is_always_the_Attention_Control_Group_N_8202_8202_620_/695709", "title"=>"Intent-to-Treat Linear Mixed Model Results for the Blom Rank Transformed Primary and Secondary Outcomes (the Comparator is always the Attention Control Group), N = 620.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:35:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050882"], "description"=>"*<p>VSP = visual speed of processing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "aging", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "geriatrics", "Non-clinical medicine", "Evidence-based medicine", "Primary care", "Public health", "preventive medicine", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "means", "blom", "transformations", "outcomes", "baseline"], "article_id"=>695710, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Fredric D. Wolinsky", "Mark W. Vander Weg", "M. Bryant Howren", "Michael P. Jones", "Megan M. Dotson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_Group_Means_prior_to_Blom_Rank_Transformations_on_the_Primary_and_Secondary_Outcomes_by_Treatment_Group_within_Age_Bands_among_Participants_with_Complete_Data_at_Baseline_and_One_Year_/695710", "title"=>"Baseline Group Means prior to Blom Rank Transformations on the Primary and Secondary Outcomes by Treatment Group within Age Bands, among Participants with Complete Data at Baseline and One Year.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:35:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1050883"], "description"=>"*<p>VSP = visual speed of processing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Physiological processes", "aging", "Clinical research design", "clinical trials", "geriatrics", "Non-clinical medicine", "Evidence-based medicine", "Primary care", "Public health", "preventive medicine", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "means", "baseline"], "article_id"=>695711, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Fredric D. Wolinsky", "Mark W. Vander Weg", "M. Bryant Howren", "Michael P. Jones", "Megan M. Dotson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061624.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Baseline_Group_Means_on_Background_Characteristics_by_Treatment_Group_within_Age_Bands_among_Participants_with_Complete_Data_at_Baseline_and_One_Year_/695711", "title"=>"Baseline Group Means on Background Characteristics by Treatment Group within Age Bands, among Participants with Complete Data at Baseline and One Year.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-05-01 01:35:11"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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