Shorter Lines Facilitate Reading in Those Who Struggle
Publication Date
August 05, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Matthew H. Schneps, Jenny M. Thomson, Gerhard Sonnert, Marc Pomplun, et al
Volume
8
Issue
8
Pages
e71161
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0071161
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23940709
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3734020
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23940709
Web of Science
000324465000186
Scopus
84881125291
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/shorter-lines-facilitate-reading-those-struggle
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Shorter Lines Facilitate Reading in Those Who Struggle", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matthew H.", "last_name"=>"Schneps", "scopus_author_id"=>"28568110000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jenny M.", "last_name"=>"Thomson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402682390"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerhard", "last_name"=>"Sonnert", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508264608"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc", "last_name"=>"Pomplun", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004222183"}, {"first_name"=>"Chen", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55814014100"}, {"first_name"=>"Amanda", "last_name"=>"Heffner-Wong", "scopus_author_id"=>"8513140200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84881125291", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0071161", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881125291", "pmid"=>"23940709", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369507297"}, "id"=>"dd02b2fd-01e3-390e-8bdc-09fc3d12918d", "abstract"=>"People with dyslexia, who ordinarily struggle to read, sometimes remark that reading is easier when e-readers are used. Here, we used eye tracking to observe high school students with dyslexia as they read using these devices. Among the factors investigated, we found that reading using a small device resulted in substantial benefits, improving reading speeds by 27%, reducing the number of fixations by 11%, and importantly, reducing the number of regressive saccades by more than a factor of 2, with no cost to comprehension. Given that an expected trade-off between horizontal and vertical regression was not observed when line lengths were altered, we speculate that these effects occur because sluggish attention spreads perception to the left as the gaze shifts during reading. Short lines eliminate crowded text to the left, reducing regression. The effects of attention modulation by the hand, and of increased letter spacing to reduce crowding, were also found to modulate the oculomotor dynamics in reading, but whether these factors resulted in benefits or costs depended on characteristics, such as visual attention span, that varied within our sample.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/shorter-lines-facilitate-reading-those-struggle", "reader_count"=>79, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Psychology"=>30, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>19, "Computer Science"=>11, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>19}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>30}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>11}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "France"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141979"], "description"=>"<p>The device is suspended from a stable mount in front of the participant, while eye movements are observed using an eye tracking device (partially visible toward the bottom of the photo). In this condition, the participant holds the device. In the NO-HAND condition, the participant’s hands are placed in his or her lap. The PAD condition is similar, except that the iPod is replaced with the larger format Apple iPad. (Photo: Randy H. Goodman).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "ipod"], "article_id"=>763735, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reading_on_the_Apple_iPod_Touch_using_the_hands_/763735", "title"=>"Reading on the Apple iPod Touch using the hands.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141980"], "description"=>"<p>Participants read 208 words per trial, two trials per condition, in each of eight unique combinations of conditions. In a single trial all 208 words are displayed on a single page in the PAD condition, while in the POD condition (inset overlaid) 12 pages are required to display the same number of words. The figure superimposes gaze-tracking data sampled from the <i>same participant</i>. Blue dots indicate fixations. Leftward regressions (LEFT) are marked in red, while symbols in green are regressions directed upwards (UP). Note that the density of horizontal regressions is higher in the PAD condition compared with POD. This individual makes numerous leftward regressions –almost as if automatic– in the PAD condition. However, in the POD condition, the density of leftward regressions is reduced. Importantly, the figure illustrates that this reduction in horizontal regressions does not occur at the expense of regressions upwards.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "pod"], "article_id"=>763736, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PAD_and_POD_conditions_compared_/763736", "title"=>"PAD and POD conditions compared.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141982"], "description"=>"<p>Extra wide letter spacing is used in the SPACED condition (B). Linewidth is here defined as the number of words per line, and this is held constant in each condition. Line spacing is also held fixed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "spaced"], "article_id"=>763738, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NORMAL_and_SPACED_conditions_compared_/763738", "title"=>"NORMAL and SPACED conditions compared.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141983"], "description"=>"<p>Fixation positions are fit to text displayed on the iPod Touch (left panel). The experiment counts the number of fixations (blue dots), regressions (red), and reading speed. Speed is determined by examining the vertical component of the gaze, plotted as a function of time in the left panel. Data in an interval near the start and end of each page is ignored to avoid boundary effects between pages, and a robust linear fit to this data (green) used to compute an instantaneous measure of reading rate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "tracking", "pod", "spaced"], "article_id"=>763739, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sample_eye_tracking_data_for_POD_SPACED_HAND_condition_/763739", "title"=>"Sample eye tracking data for POD SPACED HAND condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141984"], "description"=>"<p>When comparing the POD and PAD conditions, reading in the POD condition is faster (RATE), fixations are reduced (FIX), and the number of inefficient saccades substantially lower (TOT). These gains are observed at no cost to comprehension. (Error bars are +/−1 s.e.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "lines"], "article_id"=>763740, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Short_lines_facilitate_reading_in_dyslexia_/763740", "title"=>"Short lines facilitate reading in dyslexia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141985"], "description"=>"<p>The observed interaction of Hand and global report (VAS) is plotted for TOT, the number of fixations that depart from efficient reading. A significant interaction of Hand*VAS was observed when TOT was taken as the dependent variable. Here, the TOT is shown as a function of VAS, the number of letters correctly identified on a six-letter global report paradigm. The NO-HAND condition is indicated in red, and HAND is indicated in blue. The figure shows that those with high scores on the global report task make more TOT errors when the device is held in the hand than when they do not hold it, while the reverse is true for those with low scores. When the hand is placed in the lap, variation in VAS makes little difference. (The colored shading indicates a confidence interval for this interaction, defined by a +/−1-sigma within-subjects standard error of the mean <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161#pone.0071161-Cousineau1\" target=\"_blank\">[72]</a>. The graph is based on the POD and SPACED conditions.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "alters", "erratic"], "article_id"=>763741, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Holding_the_device_in_the_hand_alters_erratic_reading_patterns_/763741", "title"=>"Holding the device in the hand alters erratic reading patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141986"], "description"=>"<p>Interaction of Crowding and global report (VAS) is plotted for RATE, a measure of reading speed (see Fig. 4). A significant interaction of Crowding*VAS was observed when RATE was taken as the dependent variable. VAS is the number of letters correctly identified on a six-letter global report paradigm. Letter spacing makes little difference for those with high VAS scores. However, those with low VAS scores read faster using normal spacing. This suggests that increased letter spacing impedes oculomotor dynamics in readers likely to be characterized as most impaired. (Confidence intervals indicated as in Fig. 6). The graph is based on the POD and HAND conditions and median values of the continuous variables not part of the interaction.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "spacing", "slows"], "article_id"=>763742, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extra_letter_spacing_slows_reading_for_those_with_low_VAS_/763742", "title"=>"Extra letter spacing slows reading for those with low VAS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141987"], "description"=>"<p>The shape of the interaction of Crowding and reading levels for FIDELITY, a measure of reading comprehension, is plotted. A significant interaction of Crowding*High Reading was observed when FIDELITY was taken as the dependent variable. Degree of Reading Power (DRP) scores for each student, an a priori measure of their overall reading level, was used to create a dummy variable (High Reading) used to divide participants into high and low reading level groups. Those with high reading levels read well with either spaced or normal text, however, those most impaired read more effectively in the spaced condition. (Error bars indicate +/−1 s.e.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "spacing", "improves", "comprehension"], "article_id"=>763743, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extra_letter_spacing_improves_comprehension_in_those_most_impaired_/763743", "title"=>"Extra letter spacing improves comprehension in those most impaired.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141988"], "description"=>"<p>Interaction of Device and Sight Word Efficiency (SW) is plotted for RATE. Participants read faster on the POD than on the PAD. As expected, those with high SW scores read faster than those with poor sight word skills. However, the speed advantage of the POD is more pronounced in those with high SW scores. (Confidence intervals indicated as in Fig. 6.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "pod", "pronounced", "sw"], "article_id"=>763744, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Speed_benefit_of_POD_is_more_pronounced_in_those_with_strong_SW_skills_/763744", "title"=>"Speed benefit of POD is more pronounced in those with strong SW skills.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141989"], "description"=>"<p>There are twice as many horizontal regressions (LEFT) in PAD as in POD. If the mechanism for regression was entirely due to lapses in conceptual understanding, we would expect regressions made horizontally to trade off against regressions made upwards (UP), as margins are made narrow in the POD condition. And yet, this expected tradeoff is not observed. Narrowed columns halve the number of horizontal regressions, but hardly increase the number of regressions upward. This indicates that the mechanism for regression is restricted to the line, and is likely proximal to fixation. (Error bars are +/−1 s.e.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "lexical"], "article_id"=>763745, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lapses_in_high_level_lexical_processing_rarely_cause_regression_/763745", "title"=>"Lapses in high level lexical processing rarely cause regression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141990"], "description"=>"<p>A gaze-contingent display was used to mask letters on either side of fixation. When the mask was composed of X’s (blue) the person with dyslexia (solid line) outperformed typical reading controls (dashed line), reading as if unimpaired when the window size was 15 characters. But, when the window was formed by randomly replacing letters (red), the dyslexic individual performed poorly. We interpret this to suggest that the individual with dyslexia was unable to maintain attention on the “uncrowded span” <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161#pone.0071161-Pelli1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a> as the gaze advanced during reading, unless it was clearly demarcated using X’s in a gaze contingent display. When this was done, the person could read at near normal rates. (Data from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161#pone.0071161-Rayner2\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "attentional", "et"], "article_id"=>763746, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_case_study_of_8220_selective_attentional_dyslexia_8221_from_Rayner_et_al_1989_/763746", "title"=>"A case study of “selective attentional dyslexia” from Rayner, et al., 1989.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141991"], "description"=>"<p>In typical readers, attention (grey oval) is primarily directed to the direction of reading, to provide a parafoveal preview benefit, and reduce attention to words previously inspected. In dyslexia, we propose that sluggish attention shifting causes attention to be slow to disengage from previously fixated locations, effectively spreading attention to the left of the fixated word. Given that crowding (indicated with stippling) is more severe in dyslexia, text perceived to the left is likely to be misperceived, increasing the potential for confusion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "crowding", "ineffective"], "article_id"=>763747, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_illustration_of_effects_of_attention_and_crowding_in_effective_and_ineffective_readers_/763747", "title"=>"Schematic illustration of effects of attention and crowding in effective and ineffective readers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141992"], "description"=>"<p>During reading a short gaze shift is made from the word “severe” in the first fixation, to “dyslexia” in the second. We suggest that due to attention deficits, the word “severe,” left of fixation, is perceived even after the fixation has advanced. However, because this word is now in the periphery, crowding alters its percept. If this sudden change in orthographic percept triggers a cognitive dissonance that calls the word’s previous interpretation into doubt, this can encourage a regressive saccade to re-inspect the word. We refer to this process as a “crowding induced regression (CIR).”</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy"], "article_id"=>763748, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proposed_mechanism_driving_regression_/763748", "title"=>"Proposed mechanism driving regression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141993"], "description"=>"<p>The grey oval illustrates a “window” of attention spread that includes sensitivity to the left of fixation. Stippling is used to suggest the effects of crowding. The probability that crowded text can be attended to the left of fixation –in fields attended in the previous fixation– is reduced when text is formatted as narrow columns.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "lines"], "article_id"=>763749, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Narrow_lines_reduce_the_chance_crowded_text_is_perceived_left_of_fixation_/763749", "title"=>"Narrow lines reduce the chance crowded text is perceived left of fixation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141994"], "description"=>"<p><b>Dependent Variables.</b> RATE: Reading speed in words/min (higher = better); FIX: Number of fixations (lower = better); LEFT: Number of regressive saccades (lower = better); TOT: Total number of inefficient saccades (lower = better); UP: Number of gaze motions up (lower = better); DN: Number of gaze motions down (lower = better); OUT: Number of gaze motions off-page (lower = better). <b>Effects.</b> Device (1 = POD, 0 = PAD); Crowding (1 = SPACED, 0 = NORMAL); Hand (1 = HAND, 0 = NO-HAND); High Reading (1 = yes, 0 = no).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "hierarchical", "linear", "oculomotor"], "article_id"=>763750, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_hierarchical_linear_models_Primary_oculomotor_effects_/763750", "title"=>"Results of hierarchical linear models: Primary oculomotor effects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141995"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated means of oculomotor variables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy", "means", "oculomotor"], "article_id"=>763751, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_means_of_oculomotor_variables_/763751", "title"=>"Estimated means of oculomotor variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141996"], "description"=>"*<p>DRP supplied by school.</p>**<p>G-M Level 10 reported.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy"], "article_id"=>763752, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptive_statistics_for_participants_8217_demographic_and_measurement_information_/763752", "title"=>"Descriptive statistics for participants’ demographic and measurement information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141997"], "description"=>"<p><b>Device:</b> (1 = POD, 0 = PAD); <b>Crowding:</b> (1 = SPACED, 0 = NORMAL); <b>Hand:</b> (1 = HAND, 0 = NO HAND).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy"], "article_id"=>763753, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_additional_analyses_Influence_of_variation_within_the_sample_/763753", "title"=>"Summary of additional analyses: Influence of variation within the sample.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1141998"], "description"=>"<p>Fidelity as dependent variable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "Psychophysics", "Science education", "Technology development", "Economics", "human capital", "Economics of training and education", "literacy"], "article_id"=>763754, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Science Policy", "Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun", "Chen Chen", "Amanda Heffner-Wong"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071161.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fidelity_as_dependent_variable_/763754", "title"=>"Fidelity as dependent variable.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:33:03"}

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Relative Metric

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