Were Rivers Flowing across the Sahara During the Last Interglacial? Implications for Human Migration through Africa
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{"title"=>"Were rivers flowing across the Sahara during the last interglacial? Implications for human migration through Africa.", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tom J", "last_name"=>"Coulthard"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorge a", "last_name"=>"Ramirez"}, {"first_name"=>"Nick", "last_name"=>"Barton"}, {"first_name"=>"Mike", "last_name"=>"Rogerson"}, {"first_name"=>"Tim", "last_name"=>"Brücher"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PloS one", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24040347", "pui"=>"563071645", "issn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0074834", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892482984", "sgr"=>"84892482984"}, "keywords"=>["Africa", "Africa, Northern", "Climate", "Computer Simulation", "Desert Climate", "Geography", "Human Migration", "Humans", "Mediterranean Region", "Models, Theoretical", "Population Dynamics", "Rain", "Reproducibility of Results", "Rivers"], "id"=>"7784a250-cc27-3f11-ae96-a4de6fc3f39b", "abstract"=>"Human migration north through Africa is contentious. This paper uses a novel palaeohydrological and hydraulic modelling approach to test the hypothesis that under wetter climates c.100,000 years ago major river systems ran north across the Sahara to the Mediterranean, creating viable migration routes. We confirm that three of these now buried palaeo river systems could have been active at the key time of human migration across the Sahara. Unexpectedly, it is the most western of these three rivers, the Irharhar river, that represents the most likely route for human migration. The Irharhar river flows directly south to north, uniquely linking the mountain areas experiencing monsoon climates at these times to temperate Mediterranean environments where food and resources would have been abundant. The findings have major implications for our understanding of how humans migrated north through Africa, for the first time providing a quantitative perspective on the probabilities that these routes were viable for human habitation at these times.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/were-rivers-flowing-across-sahara-during-last-interglacial-implications-human-migration-through-afri", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>22, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19, "Arts and Humanities"=>12, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>11, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>27, "Linguistics"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>27}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>19}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "Netherlands"=>4, "France"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201683"], "description"=>"<p>Yearly average rainfall from a 25 year snapshot of an ESM experiment and catchment area (hatched region) as well as the time series of zonally averaged precipitation for two stripes south of the catchment highlighting the (i) South-North gradient of rainfall during the wet seasons (June to September) and (ii) the modelled year to year variability of the monsoon system. The data is drawn from 12 hourly precipitation data produced during a time-slice experiment [27] of the last Interglacial (MIS 5e, ∼124 ka BP) performed by the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean- sea ice-biosphere general circulation model of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology. The ESM consists of the spectral atmosphere model ECHAM5 [43] including the land surface model JSBACH [44] and a dynamic vegetation module [65] coupled to the general circulation ocean model MPIOM [45]. The model runs for the atmosphere at a truncation T31, which corresponds to a horizontal resolution of ∼300 km in the area under investigation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["numerical"], "article_id"=>797418, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Palaeorainfall_used_to_drive_the_combined_numerical_model_/797418", "title"=>"Palaeorainfall used to drive the combined numerical model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201690"], "description"=>"<p>This figure details Archaeological sites, and an annual probability that a location has surface water. The archaeological data are derived from a number of sources (including <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834#pone.0074834-Kleindienst1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834#pone.0074834-Balout1\" target=\"_blank\">[66]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834#pone.0074834-Bouzouggar1\" target=\"_blank\">[67]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834#pone.0074834-Garcea1\" target=\"_blank\">[68]</a>. The findspots are characterised by Aterian and Middle Stone Age artefacts such as bifacial foliates and stemmed Aterian points and/or typical ‘Mousterian’ points, side scrapers and Levallois technology. Most are represented by surface scatters but where stratified examples exist these can be shown by dating (OSL and U-series techniques) and geomorphological setting to belong within MIS 5e <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834#pone.0074834-Barton1\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834#pone.0074834-Kleindienst1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["probability"], "article_id"=>797420, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simulated_probability_of_surface_water_during_the_last_interglacial_/797420", "title"=>"Simulated probability of surface water during the last interglacial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201691"], "description"=>"<p>Monthly probability of surface water being present for (a) August, (b) September, (c) October and (d) November. These illustrate the hydrodynamics of the system simulated by the large scale 2d hydraulic model that routes a flood wave of water north across the desert from the mountains.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sahara"], "article_id"=>797421, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seasonal_flow_of_surface_water_across_the_Sahara_during_the_last_interglacial_/797421", "title"=>"Seasonal flow of surface water across the Sahara during the last interglacial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201692"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic of how the modelling sections combine to provide hydrological reconstructions of North Africa surface water.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>797422, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Combined_model_structure_/797422", "title"=>"Combined model structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201694"], "description"=>"<p>DEM of the Nile, upstream from Aswan, showing grid of different observed rainfall values (a) and grid of pre-industrial ESM precipitation values (b).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["observered", "esm", "simulated"], "article_id"=>797424, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gridding_of_observered_and_ESM_simulated_precipitation_/797424", "title"=>"Gridding of observered and ESM simulated precipitation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201696"], "description"=>"<p>Mean monthly discharge for the upper Nile recorded at Aswan from 1901–1920, discharge produced from the combined models driven with observed gridded monthly land-surface precipitation totals from 1901–1920, and driven with ESM pre-industrial climate (a). Comparison of magnitude and frequency of mean monthly discharge at Aswan, discharge produced from combined model simulations driven with observed precipitation, and ESM pre-industrial climate (b).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simulated", "discharges", "aswan", "nile"], "article_id"=>797426, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_vs_simulated_discharges_at_Aswan_for_the_Nile_validation_/797426", "title"=>"Observed vs simulated discharges at Aswan for the Nile validation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201698"], "description"=>"<p>Yearly average rainfall from a 50 year snapshot of the MPI-ESM experiment of pre-industrial climate, (280 ppm CO<sub>2</sub> out of a transient simulation).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["precipitation", "patterns"], "article_id"=>797428, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pre_industrial_precipitation_patterns_from_the_MPI_ESM_/797428", "title"=>"Pre-industrial precipitation patterns from the MPI-ESM.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201700"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison between observed rainfall (maps on left) and pre-industrial ESM (maps on right). ESM cells overlaying the upper Nile catchment were selected and mean monthly totals were calculated for a 50 year time series. Mean monthly totals for observed rainfall cells were calculated for cells of the catchment from the time period 1901–1920. To resolve differences in spatial resolution between both datasets, (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834#pone-0074834-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5a,b</a>), the centroids of observed and ESM data were chosen to interpolate mean monthly rainfall using a spline technique, at 10,000 m resolution.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["observed", "esm", "simulated", "rainfall", "pre-industrial"], "article_id"=>797430, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_between_observed_and_ESM_simulated_rainfall_for_pre_industrial_scenario_/797430", "title"=>"Comparison between observed and ESM simulated rainfall for pre-industrial scenario.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201702"], "description"=>"<p>Areas of STRM voids within the study area, showing insets used in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834#pone-0074834-g010\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 10</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dem", "voids"], "article_id"=>797432, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SRTM_DEM_data_voids_in_the_study_area_/797432", "title"=>"SRTM DEM data voids in the study area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201704"], "description"=>"<p>Elevation values from void filled SRTM v4 and GMTED 2010 data. Examples of large errors in elevation values are circled.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["filled", "voids", "strm"], "article_id"=>797434, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Tom J. Coulthard", "Jorge A. Ramirez", "Nick Barton", "Mike Rogerson", "Tim Brücher"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074834.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Erroneously_filled_voids_in_STRM_data_/797434", "title"=>"Erroneously filled voids in STRM data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:48:44"}

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Relative Metric

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