E-Readers Are More Effective than Paper for Some with Dyslexia
Publication Date
September 18, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Matthew H. Schneps, Jenny M. Thomson, Chen Chen, Gerhard Sonnert, et al
Volume
8
Issue
9
Pages
e75634
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0075634
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058697
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776763
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24058697
Web of Science
000324695900123
Scopus
84884218513
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/ereaders-more-effective-paper-some-dyslexia
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{"title"=>"E-Readers Are More Effective than Paper for Some with Dyslexia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matthew H.", "last_name"=>"Schneps", "scopus_author_id"=>"28568110000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jenny M.", "last_name"=>"Thomson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402682390"}, {"first_name"=>"Chen", "last_name"=>"Chen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55814014100"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerhard", "last_name"=>"Sonnert", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508264608"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc", "last_name"=>"Pomplun", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004222183"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24058697", "pui"=>"369835175", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84884218513", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0075634", "sgr"=>"84884218513", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"dd3ba0de-1e0f-3044-b5fb-7da976fd79d9", "abstract"=>"E-readers are fast rivaling print as a dominant method for reading. Because they offer accessibility options that are impossible in print, they are potentially beneficial for those with impairments, such as dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how the use of these devices influences reading in those who struggle. Here, we observe reading comprehension and speed in 103 high school students with dyslexia. Reading on paper was compared with reading on a small handheld e-reader device, formatted to display few words per line. We found that use of the device significantly improved speed and comprehension, when compared with traditional presentations on paper for specific subsets of these individuals: Those who struggled most with phoneme decoding or efficient sight word reading read more rapidly using the device, and those with limited VA Spans gained in comprehension. Prior eye tracking studies demonstrated that short lines facilitate reading in dyslexia, suggesting that it is the use of short lines (and not the device per se) that leads to the observed benefits. We propose that these findings may be understood as a consequence of visual attention deficits, in some with dyslexia, that make it difficult to allocate attention to uncrowded text near fixation, as the gaze advances during reading. Short lines ameliorate this by guiding attention to the uncrowded span.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ereaders-more-effective-paper-some-dyslexia", "reader_count"=>127, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>6, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>29, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>7, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>6, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>10, "Student > Master"=>29, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>7, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>17, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Psychology"=>39, "Social Sciences"=>38, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>38}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>39}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>17}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Ecuador"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Korea (South)"=>1, "China"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Estonia"=>1, "Croatia"=>1}, "group_count"=>12}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208140"], "description"=>"<p>In the paper condition students read passages from the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and answered multiple choice questions as shown. In the iPod condition the reading passage was displayed on the iPod (scrolled vertically using a finger on the touchscreen) and questions were answered on paper, as in the paper condition, except that the text passage was not displayed. Following standard protocol for this test, students were allowed to re-examine the text when answering questions, in both conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stimuli", "comparing", "ipod"], "article_id"=>802272, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Chen Chen", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sample_stimuli_comparing_paper_and_iPod_conditions_/802272", "title"=>"Sample stimuli comparing paper and iPod conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:00:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208146"], "description"=>"<p><b>Notes to </b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634#pone-0075634-t002\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 2:</b></a> N(subjects)  = 103; N(observations)  = 410.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comprehension"], "article_id"=>802278, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Chen Chen", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_Reading_Comprehension_Score_/802278", "title"=>"Analysis of Reading Comprehension Score.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:00:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208143"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Crowding is easily demonstrated. Fixating on the red line, most of the characters in the word “visual” can be identified, while those in the adjacent word “covert” (say, the letter “r”), viewed peripherally, are difficult to discern. However, when peripheral letters are viewed in isolation (the “r” to the right), the uncluttered text is more readily identified. This peripheral interaction phenomenon is referred to as crowding <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634#pone.0075634-Bouma2\" target=\"_blank\">[67]</a>. (B) Crowding increases with angle from fixation, as suggested schematically by the stippling. Given this, only the word closest to fixation (“visual”) falls within the “uncrowded span” <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634#pone.0075634-Pelli1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a> that is easily read. (C) Therefore, as the gaze shifts during reading, attention (here suggested using a radial blur) must track the uncrowded span as fixations advance. (D) However, for those with attention deficits, attention shifting is sluggish <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634#pone.0075634-Facoetti5\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a>, and we suggest that this causes attention to be slow to disengage from the previously fixated word (“covert”) as the gaze advances. Attention is therefore over-emphasized in the periphery (left of fixation), where words are subject to crowding and difficult to discern. We propose that these factors conspire to make reading difficult in some people with attentional forms of dyslexia. (E) Short lines ameliorate such deficits by guiding attention to the uncrowded span, while minimizing confusion caused by the presence of crowded text to the left of fixation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lines", "uncrowded"], "article_id"=>802275, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Chen Chen", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_proposed_explanation_Short_lines_guide_attention_to_the_uncrowded_span_/802275", "title"=>"A proposed explanation: Short lines guide attention to the uncrowded span.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:00:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208142"], "description"=>"<p>A significant interaction of method*PD was observed when reading speed was taken as the dependent variable. Here, the speed is shown as a function of PD, a measure of phonemic decoding. The interaction indicates that those with poor phonemic decoding scores perform better when reading on the iPod, while the reverse is the case for those with strong phonemic decoding scores. (Coloring, etc., as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634#pone-0075634-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a>.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pd"], "article_id"=>802274, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Chen Chen", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shape_of_interaction_of_method_and_PD_for_reading_speed_/802274", "title"=>"Shape of interaction of method and PD for reading speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:00:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208145"], "description"=>"<p><b>Notes to </b><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634#pone-0075634-t003\" target=\"_blank\"><b>Table 3:</b></a> N(subjects)  = 103; N(observations)  = 387. Whereas there was no significant interaction between method and SW in the full dataset, such an interaction was present when the analysis was restricted to only the level 7 texts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>802277, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Chen Chen", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_Reading_speed_/802277", "title"=>"Analysis of Reading speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:00:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208144"], "description"=>"<p>*Supplied by school.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["measures"], "article_id"=>802276, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Chen Chen", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_statistics_and_reading_measures_of_participants_/802276", "title"=>"Demographic statistics and reading measures of participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:00:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208141"], "description"=>"<p>A significant interaction of method*VA Span was observed when comprehension was taken as the dependent variable. Here, the mean comprehension score is shown as a function of VA Span, the number of letters correctly identified on a six letter global report paradigm. The iPod is indicated in red, and paper is indicated in blue. The figure shows that those with low scores on the global report task comprehend better when reading on the iPod while the reverse is true for those with high scores. (The colored shading indicates a confidence interval for this interaction, defined by a +/−1-sigma within-subjects standard error of the mean <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634#pone.0075634-Cousineau1\" target=\"_blank\">[68]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["va", "span"], "article_id"=>802273, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Chen Chen", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shape_of_the_interaction_of_method_and_VA_Span_for_comprehension_/802273", "title"=>"Shape of the interaction of method and VA Span for comprehension.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:00:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208139"], "description"=>"<p>A cohort of 103 participants with dyslexia were assigned to four groups (I…IV), and each read two test Forms (A, B) from the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634#pone.0075634-MacGinitie1\" target=\"_blank\">[30]</a> using paper or iPod, in a design balanced for order of device and form. The process was repeated at two Levels (7, 10).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>802271, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Matthew H. Schneps", "Jenny M. Thomson", "Chen Chen", "Gerhard Sonnert", "Marc Pomplun"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075634.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Research_design_/802271", "title"=>"Research design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:00:07"}

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Relative Metric

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