Is “Huh?” a Universal Word? Conversational Infrastructure and the Convergent Evolution of Linguistic Items
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Is ''Huh?'' a universal word? Conversational infrastructure and the convergent evolution of linguistic items", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mark", "last_name"=>"Dingemanse", "scopus_author_id"=>"25932093600"}, {"first_name"=>"Francisco", "last_name"=>"Torreira", "scopus_author_id"=>"23013559200"}, {"first_name"=>"N. J.", "last_name"=>"Enfield", "scopus_author_id"=>"9276923000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372141696", "isbn"=>"978-981-4603-62-1", "pmid"=>"24260108", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892557446", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84892557446", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078273"}, "id"=>"751aa595-ea16-319e-93a7-c41585eca624", "abstract"=>"A word like Huh?--used as a repair initiator when, for example, one has not clearly heard what someone just said--is found in roughly the same form and function in spoken languages across the globe. We investigate it in naturally occurring conversations in ten languages and present evidence and arguments for two distinct claims: that Huh? is universal, and that it is a word. In support of the first, we show that the similarities in form and function of this interjection across languages are much greater than expected by chance. In support of the second claim we show that it is a lexical, conventionalised form that has to be learnt, unlike grunts or emotional cries. We discuss possible reasons for the cross-linguistic similarity and propose an account in terms of convergent evolution. Huh? is a universal word not because it is innate but because it is shaped by selective pressures in an interactional environment that all languages share: that of other-initiated repair. Our proposal enhances evolutionary models of language change by suggesting that conversational infrastructure can drive the convergent cultural evolution of linguistic items.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/huh-universal-word-conversational-infrastructure-convergent-evolution-linguistic-items", "reader_count"=>150, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>30, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Philosophy"=>5, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>9, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Design"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>7, "Psychology"=>20, "Social Sciences"=>13, "Linguistics"=>36}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>13}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>20}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>9}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>36}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>5}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>2, "United States"=>5, "Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Switzerland"=>2, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>4, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>5}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84892557446"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84892557446?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84892557446&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84892557446&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84892557446", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84892557446", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84892557446", "dc:title"=>"Is ''Huh?'' a universal word? Conversational infrastructure and the convergent evolution of linguistic items", "dc:creator"=>"Dingemanse M.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"11", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-11-08", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"8 November 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078273", "citedby-count"=>"29", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics", "affiliation-city"=>"Nijmegen", "affiliation-country"=>"Netherlands"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24260108", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e78273", "source-id"=>"10600153309"}

Article Coverage

Article Coverage Curated

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0078273", "share_count"=>234, "like_count"=>326, "comment_count"=>197, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>757}

Journal Comments | Further Information

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"1383", "xml_views"=>"25", "html_views"=>"121216"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"173", "xml_views"=>"11", "html_views"=>"6240"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"142", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3159"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"76", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2114"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"111", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"2791"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"57", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1793"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"51", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1702"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1524"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1465"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"1098"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"1363"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"8170"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"1255"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"660"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1424"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"636"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"608"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"381"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"410"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19455"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"522"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"374"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"767", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"28374"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"245", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"5647"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"94", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"1400"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"49", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1043"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"856"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"903"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"762"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"144", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1425"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"70", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1127"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"232", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1043"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"870"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"966"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"93", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1313"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"109", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1430"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"62", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1380"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"159", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"1454"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"63", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"1362"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1190"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"1376"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"1298"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"1275"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"1289"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1224"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"38", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1103"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"94", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1258"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"673"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273686"], "description"=>"<p>A word like <i>huh?</i> –used to initiate repair when, for example, one has not clearly heard what someone just said– is found in roughly the same form in spoken languages across the globe. Languages 1–10 are examined in detail in the present study, 11–20 from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Enfield1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a>, 21–31 from sources cited. Locations are approximate. 1. <i>Cha</i>'<i>palaa</i> ?a:↓ 2. <i>Icelandic</i> ha↓ 3. <i>Spanish</i> e↗ 4. <i>Siwu</i> ã:↗ 5. <i>Dutch</i> h<$>\\scale 60%\\raster=\"rg2\"\\<$>↗ 6. <i>Italian</i> ε :↗ 7. <i>Russian</i> a: ↗ 8. <i>Lao</i> hã :↗ 9. <i>Mandarin Chinese</i> ã :↗ 10. <i>Murrinh-Patha</i> a :↗ 11. <i>‡Âkhoe Hai//om</i> hε↗ 12. <i>Chintang</i> hã↗ 13. <i>Duna </i>: ↗ 14. <i>English</i> hã↗ 15. <i>French </i>↗ 16. <i>Hungarian</i> hm↗/ha↗ 17. <i>Kri</i> ha:↗ 18. <i>Tzeltal</i> hai↗ 19. <i>Yélî Dnye </i>↗ 20. <i>Yurakaré</i> æ↗ 21. <i>Lahu</i> hãi↓ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Matisoff2\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a> 22. <i>Tai/Lue</i> hč↗/há↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Moerman1\" target=\"_blank\">[92]</a> 23. <i>Japanese</i> e↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Suzuki1\" target=\"_blank\">[93]</a> 24. <i>Korean</i> e↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Kim1\" target=\"_blank\">[94]</a> 25. <i>German</i> h↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Selting1\" target=\"_blank\">[95]</a> 26. <i>Norwegian</i> h↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Svennevig1\" target=\"_blank\">[96]</a> 27. <i>Herero</i> e↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Beck1\" target=\"_blank\">[97]</a> 28. <i>Kikongo</i> e↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Matuka1\" target=\"_blank\">[98]</a> 29. <i>Tzotzil</i> e↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Haviland1\" target=\"_blank\">[99]</a> 30. <i>Bequia Creole</i> ha:↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Sidnell2\" target=\"_blank\">[100]</a> 31. <i>Zapotec</i> aj↗ <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Sicoli1\" target=\"_blank\">[101]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["other-initiation", "thirty-one"], "article_id"=>845441, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interjections_for_other_initiation_of_repair_in_thirty_one_languages_/845441", "title"=>"Interjections for other-initiation of repair in thirty-one languages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273687"], "description"=>"<p>The vowel inventories of the world's languages tend to make maximal use of vowel space <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Schwartz1\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a>. In contrast to this, the vowels of the OIR interjections all cluster in the same low-front region. Abbreviations: Cha'palaa (Cha), Dutch (Dut), Icelandic (Ice), Italian (Ita), Lao (Lao), Mandarin (Man), Murrinh-Patha (Mur), Russian (Rus), Siwu (Siw), Spanish (Spa).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["positions", "interjections", "vowel"], "article_id"=>845442, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_positions_of_the_interjections_in_vowel_space_/845442", "title"=>"Average positions of the interjections in vowel space.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273689"], "description"=>"<p>Although the vowel of the OIR interjections is limited to the low-front region, auditory analysis shows that within that region, not all languages target the same spot – the interjections appear to have distinct vowel targets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interjection", "tokens"], "article_id"=>845444, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vowel_quality_of_interjection_tokens_by_language_/845444", "title"=>"Vowel quality of interjection tokens by language.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273690"], "description"=>"<p>An instrumental analysis of interjection tokens from Spanish and Cha'palaa shows that the interjections have distinct, language-specific vowel targets, confirming the auditory analysis in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone-0078273-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["interjection", "vowels", "spanish"], "article_id"=>845445, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Formant_values_for_the_interjection_vowels_in_Spanish_S_and_Cha_palaa_C_/845445", "title"=>"Formant values for the interjection vowels in Spanish (S) and Cha'palaa (C).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273692"], "description"=>"<p>Intonation of the OIR interjection is rising in most languages and falling in some, but more accurately described as “questioning” in all. In this product plot <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Wickham1\" target=\"_blank\">[102]</a>, area of squares is proportional to token count: a larger square means more tokens.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oir", "interjection"], "article_id"=>845447, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intonation_of_the_OIR_interjection_by_language_/845447", "title"=>"Intonation of the OIR interjection by language.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273693"], "description"=>"<p>Instrumental analysis of pitch tracks in Spanish (n = 12) and Cha'palaa (n = 13) confirms the auditory analysis in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone-0078273-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tracks", "interjections", "spanish"], "article_id"=>845448, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pitch_tracks_for_interjections_in_Spanish_and_Cha_palaa_/845448", "title"=>"Pitch tracks for interjections in Spanish and Cha'palaa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273694"], "description"=>"<p><i>Aspiration</i> [h] and <i>glottal stop</i> [?] onsets are at opposite ends of a continuum with <i>no onset</i> (<i>φ</i>) in the middle. In most languages, ‘no onset’ is the default form, and the direction in which interjections diverge from this is related to the phonology of the language. Spanish is a special case because the laboratory recordings <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Torreira1\" target=\"_blank\">[20]</a> allow the detection of even the slightest glottal constriction or aspiration. In this product plot <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273#pone.0078273-Wickham1\" target=\"_blank\">[102]</a>, area of squares is proportional to token count: a larger square means more tokens.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["onset"], "article_id"=>845449, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interjection_onset_by_language_/845449", "title"=>"Interjection onset by language.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273695"], "description"=>"<p>Question words (“what?”) and interjections (“huh?”) for initiating repair in ten languages.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["words", "interjections", "initiating"], "article_id"=>845450, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Question_words_8220_what_8221_and_interjections_8220_huh_8221_for_initiating_repair_in_ten_languages_/845450", "title"=>"Question words (“what?”) and interjections (“huh?”) for initiating repair in ten languages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273696"], "description"=>"<p>Languages, field sites, and contributing researchers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contributing"], "article_id"=>845451, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Languages_field_sites_and_contributing_researchers_/845451", "title"=>"Languages, field sites, and contributing researchers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1273697"], "description"=>"<div><p>A word like <i>Huh?</i>–used as a repair initiator when, for example, one has not clearly heard what someone just said– is found in roughly the same form and function in spoken languages across the globe. We investigate it in naturally occurring conversations in ten languages and present evidence and arguments for two distinct claims: that <i>Huh?</i> is universal, and that it is a word. In support of the first, we show that the similarities in form and function of this interjection across languages are much greater than expected by chance. In support of the second claim we show that it is a lexical, conventionalised form that has to be learnt, unlike grunts or emotional cries. We discuss possible reasons for the cross-linguistic similarity and propose an account in terms of convergent evolution. <i>Huh?</i> is a universal word not because it is innate but because it is shaped by selective pressures in an interactional environment that all languages share: that of other-initiated repair. Our proposal enhances evolutionary models of language change by suggesting that conversational infrastructure can drive the convergent cultural evolution of linguistic items.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["conversational", "convergent", "linguistic"], "article_id"=>845452, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Mark Dingemanse", "Francisco Torreira", "N. J. Enfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078273", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>35, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Is_8220_Huh_8221_a_Universal_Word_Conversational_Infrastructure_and_the_Convergent_Evolution_of_Linguistic_Items_/845452", "title"=>"Is “Huh?” a Universal Word? Conversational Infrastructure and the Convergent Evolution of Linguistic Items", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-08 03:30:08"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"97", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"75", "full-text"=>"82", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[302, 488, 607, 717, 832, 931, 1024, 1117, 1212, 1302, 1389, 1469, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Linguistics", "average_usage"=>[290, 461, 572, 671, 770, 847, 934, 1000, 1096, 1189, 1263, 1319, 1382]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts