Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16
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{"title"=>"Strong genetic influence on a UK nationwide test of educational achievement at the end of compulsory education at age 16", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nicholas G.", "last_name"=>"Shakeshaft", "scopus_author_id"=>"55782517200"}, {"first_name"=>"Maciej", "last_name"=>"Trzaskowski", "scopus_author_id"=>"42862393000"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"McMillan", "scopus_author_id"=>"20434272100"}, {"first_name"=>"Kaili", "last_name"=>"Rimfeld", "scopus_author_id"=>"55953973500"}, {"first_name"=>"Eva", "last_name"=>"Krapohl", "scopus_author_id"=>"55954135900"}, {"first_name"=>"Claire M A", "last_name"=>"Haworth", "scopus_author_id"=>"16042255500"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip S.", "last_name"=>"Dale", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101987679"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Plomin", "scopus_author_id"=>"36050187200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892573273", "isbn"=>"0020739X", "pmid"=>"24349000", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84892573273", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0080341", "pui"=>"372134066"}, "id"=>"1b88f6b2-3287-3982-b80b-b0618e4ddb1a", "abstract"=>"We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1311407"], "description"=>"<p><sup>2</sup>: double the difference between MZ and DZSS), shared environment (c<sup>2</sup>: the MZ correlation minus h<sup>2</sup>), and unique environment including error (e<sup>2</sup>: 1 - h<sup>2</sup> - c<sup>2</sup>). All variables except for mathematics are composites. Variance component estimates are heritability (h</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["correlations", "approximate", "variance", "estimates", "monozygotic", "same-sex", "dizygotic", "separately", "mz", "dz", "males", "females", "opposite-sex"], "article_id"=>874896, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nicholas G. Shakeshaft", "Maciej Trzaskowski", "Andrew McMillan", "Kaili Rimfeld", "Eva Krapohl", "Claire M. A. Haworth", "Philip S. Dale", "Robert Plomin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intraclass_twin_correlations_with_95_confidence_intervals_and_approximate_variance_component_estimates_for_monozygotic_MZ_and_same_sex_dizygotic_DZss_twins_and_separately_for_MZ_and_DZ_males_m_and_females_f_and_opposite_sex_os_DZs_/874896", "title"=>"Intraclass twin correlations (with 95% confidence intervals) and approximate variance component estimates for monozygotic (MZ) and same-sex dizygotic (DZss) twins, and separately for MZ and DZ males (m) and females (f), and opposite-sex (os) DZs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-11 03:36:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1311411"], "description"=>"<div><p>We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (<i>instruere</i>, ‘to build in’), we propose an active model of education (<i>educare</i>, ‘to bring out’) in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["uk", "compulsory"], "article_id"=>874900, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nicholas G. Shakeshaft", "Maciej Trzaskowski", "Andrew McMillan", "Kaili Rimfeld", "Eva Krapohl", "Claire M. A. Haworth", "Philip S. Dale", "Robert Plomin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strong_Genetic_Influence_on_a_UK_Nationwide_Test_of_Educational_Achievement_at_the_End_of_Compulsory_Education_at_Age_16_/874900", "title"=>"Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-11 03:36:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1311408"], "description"=>"<p> Numbers of pairs are shown for male (m), female (f) and opposite sex (os) monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins; figures include incomplete pairs (i.e., those with missing data for one twin). All variables except for mathematics are composites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fitting", "additive", "residual", "non-shared", "components"], "article_id"=>874897, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nicholas G. Shakeshaft", "Maciej Trzaskowski", "Andrew McMillan", "Kaili Rimfeld", "Eva Krapohl", "Claire M. A. Haworth", "Philip S. Dale", "Robert Plomin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_fitting_results_for_additive_genetic_A_shared_environmental_C_and_residual_E_i_e_non_shared_environment_and_error_components_of_variance_with_95_confidence_intervals_/874897", "title"=>"Model fitting results for additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C) and residual (E; i.e., non-shared environment and error) components of variance, with 95% confidence intervals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-11 03:36:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1311409"], "description"=>"<p>* to G. N = sample size after exclusions (individuals); MZ = monozygotic; DZ = dizygotic; m = male; f = female; os = opposite sex. ANOVA performed (on cleaned, normality-transformed data from one randomly-selected twin per pair) to test effects of sex and zygosity: results = F statistic; * = p<.05; ** = p<.01; R<sup>2</sup> = proportion of variance explained by sex, zygosity and their interaction. All variables except for mathematics are composites. Scores for composite means and mathematics GCSE have a maximum of 11 and a minimum of 4, representing grades A</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["means"], "article_id"=>874898, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nicholas G. Shakeshaft", "Maciej Trzaskowski", "Andrew McMillan", "Kaili Rimfeld", "Eva Krapohl", "Claire M. A. Haworth", "Philip S. Dale", "Robert Plomin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GCSE_grade_means_standard_deviations_/874898", "title"=>"GCSE grade means (standard deviations).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-11 03:36:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1311406"], "description"=>"<p>A = additive genetic influence; C = shared environmental influence; E = non-shared (unique) environmental influence. Paths a, c and e = effects of A, C and E on the trait. rMZ and rDZ = genetic or shared environmental correlations for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram"], "article_id"=>874895, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nicholas G. Shakeshaft", "Maciej Trzaskowski", "Andrew McMillan", "Kaili Rimfeld", "Eva Krapohl", "Claire M. A. Haworth", "Philip S. Dale", "Robert Plomin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080341.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Path_diagram_representing_the_basic_twin_model_/874895", "title"=>"Path diagram representing the basic twin model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-11 03:36:03"}

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Relative Metric

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