Signs & Symptoms of Dextromethorphan Exposure from YouTube
Publication Date
February 12, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Michael Chary, Emily H. Park, Andrew Mc Kenzie, Julia Sun, et al
Volume
9
Issue
2
Pages
e82452
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0082452
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24533044
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3922701
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24533044
Web of Science
000331262600002
Scopus
84895737183
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/signs-symptoms-dextromethorphan-exposure-youtube
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Signs & symptoms of Dextromethorphan exposure from YouTube", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Chary", "scopus_author_id"=>"55657142800"}, {"first_name"=>"Emily H.", "last_name"=>"Park", "scopus_author_id"=>"56060329000"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"McKenzie", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197111520"}, {"first_name"=>"Julia", "last_name"=>"Sun", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198439716"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex F.", "last_name"=>"Manini", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602166389"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas", "last_name"=>"Genes", "scopus_author_id"=>"26430842900"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895737183", "pui"=>"372545390", "sgr"=>"84895737183", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24533044", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0082452"}, "id"=>"563fd577-490b-3f5b-bcda-5b0f78062e6e", "abstract"=>"Detailed data on the recreational use of drugs are difficult to obtain through traditional means, especially for substances like Dextromethorphan (DXM) which are available over-the-counter for medicinal purposes. In this study, we show that information provided by commenters on YouTube is useful for uncovering the toxicologic effects of DXM. Using methods of computational linguistics, we were able to recreate many of the clinically described signs and symptoms of DXM ingestion at various doses, using information extracted from YouTube comments. Our study shows how social networks can enhance our understanding of recreational drug effects.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/signs-symptoms-dextromethorphan-exposure-youtube", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Engineering"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382077"], "description"=>"<p>Extraction of YouTube Comments for Analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "youtube", "comments"], "article_id"=>931085, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extraction_of_YouTube_Comments_for_Analysis_/931085", "title"=>"Extraction of YouTube Comments for Analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382076"], "description"=>"<p>The black bars refer to “Robo-tripping” videos from YouTube, the white bars to the most popular videos (see sec:<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Methods</a>). All values for path similarity are calculated relative to the signs and symptoms mentioned in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452#pone.0082452-Boyer2\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "youtube", "comments", "established", "signs", "symptoms", "dextromethorphan"], "article_id"=>931084, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Semantic_similarity_of_YouTube_comments_to_established_signs_and_symptoms_of_dextromethorphan_use_/931084", "title"=>"Semantic similarity of YouTube comments to established signs and symptoms of dextromethorphan use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382073"], "description"=>"<p>Probability density function of words from all YouTube comments analyzed in this paper. The frequency of occurrence was calculated after removing stopwords.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "words", "youtube"], "article_id"=>931081, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Most_frequent_words_in_YouTube_comments_/931081", "title"=>"Most frequent words in YouTube comments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382071"], "description"=>"<p>Spreading out from the root concept of drugs are progressive refinements or <i>hyponyms</i>. Counting each path as 1 and starting from the root node, Drugs, one may calculate the path similarity of any two concepts (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "wordnet"], "article_id"=>931079, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_WordNet_hierarchy_/931079", "title"=>"Example WordNet hierarchy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382070"], "description"=>"<p>The left panel shows the representation of two sentences, “Dogs run and dogs run.” and “Cats run.” as vectors. The “Dogs run” vector is twice the length of “Cats run” because each term in the former is repeated. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452#pone.0082452.e005\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 1</a> illustrates how the cosine of the angle between the two vectors, , quantifies the similarity between the two sentences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "sentences"], "article_id"=>931078, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representing_sentences_as_vectors_/931078", "title"=>"Representing sentences as vectors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382084"], "description"=>"<p>The table shows the words from YouTube comments that had a significantly high tf-idf score and were classified as semantically related to medicine according to the criteria in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452#pone-0082452-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks"], "article_id"=>931092, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Words_specific_to_each_plateau_/931092", "title"=>"Words specific to each plateau.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382079"], "description"=>"<p>Most frequent words in YouTube comments stratified by plateau.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "words", "youtube", "comments", "stratified"], "article_id"=>931087, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Most_frequent_words_in_YouTube_comments_stratified_by_plateau_/931087", "title"=>"Most frequent words in YouTube comments stratified by plateau.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382080"], "description"=>"<p>Each panel shows the distribution of tf-idf scores for YouTube comments stratified by the plateaus defined in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452#pone.0082452-Boyer2\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>. The dotted line shows the threshold beyond which the tf-idf score indicates that the word indicates a specific plateau.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "tf-idf", "scores", "youtube"], "article_id"=>931088, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>59, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_tf_idf_scores_for_YouTube_comments_/931088", "title"=>"Distribution of tf-idf scores for YouTube comments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382074"], "description"=>"<p>The histogram (bin size = 200mg) shows the distribution of dosages mentioned in the YouTube comments. All doses were converted to milligrams.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "dxm", "dosages", "discussed"], "article_id"=>931082, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Range_of_dxm_dosages_discussed_on_YouTube_/931082", "title"=>"Range of dxm dosages discussed on YouTube.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382069"], "description"=>"<p>The histogram (bin size = 9 words) shows the distribution of number of words for all YouTube comments analyzed in this paper. Words were defined as strings of characters flanked by white spaces after the preprocessing described in results. The bin size for the histogram is 9 words.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "words", "youtube"], "article_id"=>931077, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_words_in_YouTube_comments_/931077", "title"=>"Number of words in YouTube comments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382083"], "description"=>"<p>Categories for stratifying words based on semantic relation to drug use.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "stratifying", "words", "semantic"], "article_id"=>931091, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Categories_for_stratifying_words_based_on_semantic_relation_to_drug_use_/931091", "title"=>"Categories for stratifying words based on semantic relation to drug use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1382082"], "description"=>"<p>Adapted from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452#pone.0082452-Boyer2\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Recreational drug use", "Drug information", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Substance abuse", "toxicology", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Sociology", "social networks", "symptoms", "dextromethorphan"], "article_id"=>931090, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michael Chary", "Emily H. Park", "Andrew McKenzie", "Julia Sun", "Alex F. Manini", "Nicholas Genes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082452.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Signs_and_symptoms_associated_with_dextromethorphan_ingestions_/931090", "title"=>"Signs and symptoms associated with dextromethorphan ingestions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-12 03:02:12"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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