Discriminant Features and Temporal Structure of Nonmanuals in American Sign Language
Publication Date
February 06, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
C. Fabian Benitez Quiroz, Kadir Gökgöz, Ronnie B. Wilbur & Aleix M. Martinez
Volume
9
Issue
2
Pages
e86268
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0086268
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24516528
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916328
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24516528
Web of Science
000330830700007
Scopus
84895532360
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/discriminant-features-temporal-structure-nonmanuals-american-sign-language
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Discriminant features and temporal structure of nonmanuals in American sign language", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"C. Fabian", "last_name"=>"Benitez-Quiroz", "scopus_author_id"=>"52763139300"}, {"first_name"=>"Kadir", "last_name"=>"Gökgöz", "scopus_author_id"=>"47561286900"}, {"first_name"=>"Ronnie B.", "last_name"=>"Wilbur", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006111427"}, {"first_name"=>"Aleix M.", "last_name"=>"Martinez", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404025978"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24516528", "sgr"=>"84895532360", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0086268", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895532360", "pui"=>"372535507", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"fca1f8a5-cfc1-37f9-b8dd-85cb9e6be266", "abstract"=>"To fully define the grammar of American Sign Language (ASL), a linguistic model of its nonmanuals needs to be constructed. While significant progress has been made to understand the features defining ASL manuals, after years of research, much still needs to be done to uncover the discriminant nonmanual components. The major barrier to achieving this goal is the difficulty in correlating facial features and linguistic features, especially since these correlations may be temporally defined. For example, a facial feature (e.g., head moves down) occurring at the end of the movement of another facial feature (e.g., brows moves up), may specify a Hypothetical conditional, but only if this time relationship is maintained. In other instances, the single occurrence of a movement (e.g., brows move up) can be indicative of the same grammatical construction. In the present paper, we introduce a linguistic-computational approach to efficiently carry out this analysis. First, a linguistic model of the face is used to manually annotate a very large set of 2,347 videos of ASL nonmanuals (including tens of thousands of frames). Second, a computational approach is used to determine which features of the linguistic model are more informative of the grammatical rules under study. We used the proposed approach to study five types of sentences - Hypothetical conditionals, Yes/no questions, Wh-questions, Wh-questions postposed, and Assertions - plus their polarities - positive and negative. Our results verify several components of the standard model of ASL nonmanuals and, most importantly, identify several previously unreported features and their temporal relationship. Notably, our results uncovered a complex interaction between head position and mouth shape. These findings define some temporal structures of ASL nonmanuals not previously detected by other approaches.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/discriminant-features-temporal-structure-nonmanuals-american-sign-language", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>4, "Unspecified"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>5, "Linguistics"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>5}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>10}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Hong Kong"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84895532360"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84895532360?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84895532360&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84895532360&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84895532360", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84895532360", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84895532360", "dc:title"=>"Discriminant features and temporal structure of nonmanuals in American sign language", "dc:creator"=>"Benitez-Quiroz C.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"2", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-02-06", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"6 February 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0086268", "citedby-count"=>"8", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Ohio State University", "affiliation-city"=>"Columbus", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24516528", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e86268", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0086268", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"11", "html_views"=>"389"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"139"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"180"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"131"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"112"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"103"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"85"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"69"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378742"], "description"=>"<p>Discriminant features for Yes/no-questions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics"], "article_id"=>928192, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_features_for_Yes_no_questions_/928192", "title"=>"Discriminant features for Yes/no-questions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378743"], "description"=>"<p>Discriminant features for Assertions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics"], "article_id"=>928193, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_features_for_Assertions_/928193", "title"=>"Discriminant features for Assertions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378744"], "description"=>"<p>Discriminant features for Wh-questions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics"], "article_id"=>928194, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_features_for_Wh_questions_/928194", "title"=>"Discriminant features for Wh-questions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378745"], "description"=>"<p>Discriminant features for Wh-questions postposed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "wh-questions"], "article_id"=>928195, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_features_for_Wh_questions_postposed_/928195", "title"=>"Discriminant features for Wh-questions postposed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378746"], "description"=>"<p>Discriminant features for polarity in Hypothetical conditionals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "polarity", "hypothetical"], "article_id"=>928196, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_features_for_polarity_in_Hypothetical_conditionals_/928196", "title"=>"Discriminant features for polarity in Hypothetical conditionals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378747"], "description"=>"<p>Discriminant features for polarity in Wh-questions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "polarity"], "article_id"=>928197, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_features_for_polarity_in_Wh_questions_/928197", "title"=>"Discriminant features for polarity in Wh-questions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378748"], "description"=>"<p>Discriminant features for polarity in Wh-questions postposed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "polarity", "wh-questions"], "article_id"=>928198, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_features_for_polarity_in_Wh_questions_postposed_/928198", "title"=>"Discriminant features for polarity in Wh-questions postposed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378749"], "description"=>"<p>Discriminant features for polarity in Assertions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "polarity"], "article_id"=>928199, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_features_for_polarity_in_Assertions_/928199", "title"=>"Discriminant features for polarity in Assertions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378750"], "description"=>"<div><p>To fully define the grammar of American Sign Language (ASL), a linguistic model of its nonmanuals needs to be constructed. While significant progress has been made to understand the features defining ASL manuals, after years of research, much still needs to be done to uncover the discriminant nonmanual components. The major barrier to achieving this goal is the difficulty in correlating facial features and linguistic features, especially since these correlations may be temporally defined. For example, a facial feature (e.g., head moves down) occurring at the end of the movement of another facial feature (e.g., brows moves up), may specify a Hypothetical conditional, but only if this time relationship is maintained. In other instances, the single occurrence of a movement (e.g., brows move up) can be indicative of the same grammatical construction. In the present paper, we introduce a linguistic–computational approach to efficiently carry out this analysis. First, a linguistic model of the face is used to manually annotate a very large set of 2,347 videos of ASL nonmanuals (including tens of thousands of frames). Second, a computational approach is used to determine which features of the linguistic model are more informative of the grammatical rules under study. We used the proposed approach to study five types of sentences – Hypothetical conditionals, Yes/no questions, Wh-questions, Wh-questions postposed, and Assertions – plus their polarities – positive and negative. Our results verify several components of the standard model of ASL nonmanuals and, most importantly, identify several previously unreported features and their temporal relationship. Notably, our results uncovered a complex interaction between head position and mouth shape. These findings define some temporal structures of ASL nonmanuals not previously detected by other approaches.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "temporal", "nonmanuals", "american"], "article_id"=>928200, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_Features_and_Temporal_Structure_of_Nonmanuals_in_American_Sign_Language_/928200", "title"=>"Discriminant Features and Temporal Structure of Nonmanuals in American Sign Language", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378730"], "description"=>"<p>Our manual annotations specify where the sentence starts and ends, where each word (or concept) starts and ends, plus the shape and configural features used to uncover the linguistic model (see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "allows", "users", "synchronized", "videos", "facilitating", "annotations"], "article_id"=>928180, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ELAN_is_a_computer_software_that_allows_users_to_view_synchronized_videos_simultaneously_and_frame_by_frame_top_of_figure_facilitating_manual_annotations_bottom_half_/928180", "title"=>"ELAN is a computer software that allows users to view synchronized videos simultaneously and frame by frame (top of figure), facilitating manual annotations (bottom half).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378731"], "description"=>"<p>Samples of a video sequence of a native ASL signer signing “If #Sarah have a party tomorrow”.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "asl", "signer", "signing"], "article_id"=>928181, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Samples_of_a_video_sequence_of_a_native_ASL_signer_signing_8220_If_Sarah_have_a_party_tomorrow_8221_/928181", "title"=>"Samples of a video sequence of a native ASL signer signing “If #Sarah have a party tomorrow”.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378732"], "description"=>"<p>In <b>A</b> we show a neutral face. A neutral face is defined as one without expression where all facial muscles are relaxed (except for the eyelids which are open). <b>B</b> We consider two configural positions for the eyebrows (up and down). <b>C</b> Blinks are marked by closing the eyelids. <b>D</b> The mouth can be open or closed. <b>E</b> We also annotate mouth shape where appropriate (flat, round and other). <b>F</b> When there is teeth showing, we consider three distinct positions – closed (top and bottom teeth touching), open (not touching), touching lips (where the top teeth are over the lower lip or the bottom teeth touch the upper lip). <b>G</b>–<b>I</b> We also consider the three possible rotations of the head – turns, tilts and forward/backward movements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "configural", "positions", "nonmanuals", "sentences"], "article_id"=>928182, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_configural_and_shape_positions_used_to_define_each_of_the_nonmanuals_in_sentences_of_ASL_/928182", "title"=>"The configural and shape positions used to define each of the nonmanuals in sentences of ASL.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378733"], "description"=>"<p>Visual representation of the propositions used in our coding.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "propositions"], "article_id"=>928183, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_representation_of_the_propositions_used_in_our_coding_/928183", "title"=>"Visual representation of the propositions used in our coding.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378734"], "description"=>"<p>For clarity, here, we have listed the events and their time intervals in order of occurrence. The top row specifies the first event, with subsequent rows listing later occurring events. The bottom row summarizes the time interval of each signed concept. This visualization facilitates the coding of the events using the propositions in . For example, for the figure above, it is easy to see that <i>head moves up</i> occurs <i>during</i> event <i>brows move up</i>, which can be compactly expressed as head moves up, brows move up).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "diagram", "describing", "facial", "gloss", "grill"], "article_id"=>928184, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_diagram_describing_facial_feature_movements_positions_and_the_gloss_for_the_sentence_8220_BRAD_IXi_COOK_FISH_ON_GRILL_IXi_8221_/928184", "title"=>"A diagram describing facial feature movements/positions and the gloss for the sentence “#BRAD-IXi COOK FISH ON GRILL IXi.”", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378735"], "description"=>"<p>The dark blue color indicates a low number of occurrences for an event, while a dark orange color indicates a high number of repetitions. This figure is the histogram corresponding to the example in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268#pone-0086268-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>. The feature vector entries () are read from left to right ().</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "atl"], "article_id"=>928185, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_representation_of_the_ATL_feature_vector_/928185", "title"=>"Visual representation of the ATL feature vector.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378736"], "description"=>"<p>Mouth positions for the sentence “WHO COOK FISH ON #GRILL.”</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "positions"], "article_id"=>928186, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mouth_positions_for_the_sentence_8220_WHO_COOK_FISH_ON_GRILL_8221_/928186", "title"=>"Mouth positions for the sentence “WHO COOK FISH ON #GRILL.”", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378737"], "description"=>"<p>Computational model of polarity in Hypothetical conditionals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "polarity", "hypothetical"], "article_id"=>928187, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Computational_model_of_polarity_in_Hypothetical_conditionals_/928187", "title"=>"Computational model of polarity in Hypothetical conditionals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378738"], "description"=>"<p>Computational model of positive versus negative polarity in Wh-questions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "polarity"], "article_id"=>928188, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Computational_model_of_positive_versus_negative_polarity_in_Wh_questions_/928188", "title"=>"Computational model of positive versus negative polarity in Wh-questions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378739"], "description"=>"<p>It is important to note in the table above that the temporal information is encoded in the description of the ATL using the propositions in . The temporal information is hence intrinsically coded in this table.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "relations"], "article_id"=>928189, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_relations_for_the_events_in_Fig_5_/928189", "title"=>"Temporal relations for the events in Fig. 5.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378740"], "description"=>"<p>Discriminant features for Hypothetical conditionals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics", "hypothetical"], "article_id"=>928190, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discriminant_features_for_Hypothetical_conditionals_/928190", "title"=>"Discriminant features for Hypothetical conditionals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1378741"], "description"=>"<p>Features of the model and their entry sets.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Natural Language Processing", "neuroscience", "Neurolinguistics", "anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "communications", "Sign language", "linguistics", "Computational linguistics", "Natural language", "Psycholinguistics", "Sociolinguistics"], "article_id"=>928191, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["C. Fabian Benitez-Quiroz", "Kadir Gökgöz", "Ronnie B. Wilbur", "Aleix M. Martinez"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086268.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Features_of_the_model_and_their_entry_sets_/928191", "title"=>"Features of the model and their entry sets.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-06 02:43:31"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"25", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[292, 461]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[289]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Linguistics", "average_usage"=>[348, 505]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[314, 476]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts