Understanding Public Opinion in Debates over Biomedical Research: Looking beyond Political Partisanship to Focus on Beliefs about Science and Society
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{"title"=>"Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: Looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matthew", "last_name"=>"Nisbet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701850118"}, {"first_name"=>"Ezra M.", "last_name"=>"Markowitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"9741634300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84895861047", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0088473", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895861047", "pmid"=>"24558393", "pui"=>"372565751"}, "id"=>"154f0070-4fc0-3792-be8b-2a21fe020450", "abstract"=>"As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/understanding-public-opinion-debates-biomedical-research-looking-beyond-political-partisanship-focus", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>24, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>24}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>6, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1389244/Figure_1.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Unique audience segments relative to their views on the social implications of science and society were identified using principle components analysis, oblique rotation. Participants who scored high on scientific optimism and low on scientific reservations were categorized as “Scientific Optimists” (35.9% of respondents). Those who scored high on scientific reservations and low on scientific optimism were categorized as “Scientific Pessimists” (23.3% of sample). Respondents who scored high on both measures were categorized as “Conflicted” (24.6% of sample). Those who scored low on both measures were categorized as “Disengaged” (16.2% of sample). Size of the bubbles for each schema-related audience segment are proportional to the percentage of relevant respondents within the pooled, aggregated data sets (N = 8,105). To measure their views on embryonic stem cell research, respondents were asked: “On the whole, how much do you favor or oppose medical research that uses stem cells from human embryos - do you strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this?” Source: Virginia Commonwealth University Life Sciences Surveys, 2002–2010. No survey was collected in 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "stem cells", "Embryonic stem cells", "bioethics", "Research assessment", "Science policy and economics", "communications", "Media studies", "Political science", "Public opinion", "public policy", "favoring", "embryonic"], "article_id"=>937146, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew Nisbet", "Ezra M. Markowitz"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Views_on_science_and_society_as_a_proportion_of_U_S_adult_population_and_by_percentage_favoring_embryonic_stem_cell_research_/937146", "title"=>"Views on science and society as a proportion of U.S adult population and by percentage favoring embryonic stem cell research.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-18 02:51:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1389246/Figure_2.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Respondents were asked: “On the whole, how much do you favor or oppose medical research that uses stem cells from human embryos - do you strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this?” Source: Virginia Commonwealth University Life Sciences Surveys, 2002–2010. No survey was collected in 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "stem cells", "Embryonic stem cells", "bioethics", "Research assessment", "Science policy and economics", "communications", "Media studies", "Political science", "Public opinion", "public policy", "adults", "partisanship", "embryonic"], "article_id"=>937148, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew Nisbet", "Ezra M. Markowitz"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_U_S_adults_by_partisanship_who_favor_embryonic_stem_cell_research_2002_8211_2010_/937148", "title"=>"Percentage of U.S. adults by partisanship who favor embryonic stem cell research, 2002–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-18 02:51:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1389247/Figure_3.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Respondents were asked: “On the whole, how much do you favor or oppose medical research that uses stem cells from human embryos - do you strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this?” College-educated adults include those with a four-year college degree or higher. Non-college educated adults include those with a two-year associates degree, some college experience, a high school degree, or less. Source: Virginia Commonwealth University Life Sciences Surveys, 2002–2010. No survey was collected in 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "stem cells", "Embryonic stem cells", "bioethics", "Research assessment", "Science policy and economics", "communications", "Media studies", "Political science", "Public opinion", "public policy", "adults", "partisanship", "embryonic"], "article_id"=>937149, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew Nisbet", "Ezra M. Markowitz"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_U_S_adults_by_partisanship_and_education_who_favor_embryonic_stem_cell_research_2002_8211_2010_/937149", "title"=>"Percentage of U.S. adults by partisanship and education who favor embryonic stem cell research, 2002–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-18 02:51:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1389249/Figure_4.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Respondents were asked: “On the whole, how much do you favor or oppose medical research that uses stem cells from human embryos - do you strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this?” Source: Virginia Commonwealth University Life Sciences Surveys, 2002–2010. No survey was collected in 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "stem cells", "Embryonic stem cells", "bioethics", "Research assessment", "Science policy and economics", "communications", "Media studies", "Political science", "Public opinion", "public policy", "adults", "views", "embryonic"], "article_id"=>937151, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew Nisbet", "Ezra M. Markowitz"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_U_S_adults_by_views_on_science_and_society_who_favor_embryonic_stem_cell_research_2002_8211_2010_/937151", "title"=>"Percentage of U.S. adults by views on science and society who favor embryonic stem cell research, 2002–2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-18 02:51:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1389250/Table_2.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Note: Survey data collected by the Virginia Commonwealth University Life Sciences Surveys, 2002–2010. No survey was conducted in 2009. The survey questions were developed jointly by VCU Life Sciences and by the VCU Center for Public Policy. All surveys by the designated survey firms were conducted by either landline or cell phone. The sample of landline and cell telephone numbers was designed so that all residential telephones, including new and unlisted numbers, had a known chance of inclusion. Response rates based on AAPOR RR3 calculation method. The data used in our analysis were weighted to adjust for unequal probabilities of selection due to multiple adults living in the household. In addition, the data are weighted on sex, age, education, race/ethnicity, and region to reflect the demographic composition of the adult population in the U.S. The surveys in 2008 and 2010 were additionally weighted by population density. All percentages reported in the current study's figures and tables are weighted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "stem cells", "Embryonic stem cells", "bioethics", "Research assessment", "Science policy and economics", "communications", "Media studies", "Political science", "Public opinion", "public policy", "rates", "vcu", "sciences", "2002"], "article_id"=>937152, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew Nisbet", "Ezra M. Markowitz"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Dates_sample_size_and_response_rates_for_VCU_Life_Sciences_Surveys_2002_to_2010_/937152", "title"=>"Dates, sample size, and response rates for VCU Life Sciences Surveys, 2002 to 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-18 02:51:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1389251/Table_3.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Note: All χ<sup>2</sup> and F tests are significant at p<.01. Source: Virginia Commonwealth University Life Sciences Surveys, 2002–2010, N = 8,105. No survey was collected in 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "stem cells", "Embryonic stem cells", "bioethics", "Research assessment", "Science policy and economics", "communications", "Media studies", "Political science", "Public opinion", "public policy", "adults", "segmented", "views"], "article_id"=>937153, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew Nisbet", "Ezra M. Markowitz"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Major_characteristics_of_U_S_adults_as_segmented_by_their_views_on_science_and_society_/937153", "title"=>"Major characteristics of U.S. adults as segmented by their views on science and society.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-18 02:51:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1389252/Table_1.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Note: Respondents were asked: “As far as you know, is [George W. Bush/John Kerry] in favor or opposed to the use of federal funds for stem cell research which involves the destruction of living embryos?” National sample of registered voters only. The respondents were originally interviewed September 13–29, 2004 and re-interviewed October 14–17 following the presidential debate held on October 13, 2004. Source: HealthPulse survey conducted by Stony Brook University Center for Survey Research.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "stem cells", "Embryonic stem cells", "bioethics", "Research assessment", "Science policy and economics", "communications", "Media studies", "Political science", "Public opinion", "public policy", "registered", "voters", "2004"], "article_id"=>937154, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew Nisbet", "Ezra M. Markowitz"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_U_S_registered_voters_aware_of_2004_presidential_candidates_position_on_funding_for_research_/937154", "title"=>"Percentage of U.S. registered voters aware of 2004 presidential candidates' position on funding for research.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-18 02:51:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1389253/Table_4.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Note:</p><p>* p<.05.</p><p>** p<.01.</p><p>*** p<.001.</p><p>Respondents were asked: “On the whole, how much do you favor or oppose medical research that uses stem cells from human embryos - do you strongly favor, somewhat favor, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this?” Responses are coded in the direction of increasing support. Source: Virginia Commonwealth University Life Sciences Surveys, 2002–2010, N = 8,105. No survey was collected in 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "stem cells", "Embryonic stem cells", "bioethics", "Research assessment", "Science policy and economics", "communications", "Media studies", "Political science", "Public opinion", "public policy", "ordered", "probit", "regression", "predicting", "embryonic"], "article_id"=>937155, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew Nisbet", "Ezra M. Markowitz"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_ordered_probit_regression_models_predicting_U_S_adult_support_for_embryonic_stem_cell_research_/937155", "title"=>"Results of ordered probit regression models predicting U.S. adult support for embryonic stem cell research.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-18 02:51:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1389254/Table_5.xls"], "description"=>"<p>Note:</p><p>* p<.05.</p><p>** p<.01.</p><p>*** p<.001.</p><p>In testing each of the above interactions, all previous variables displayed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473#pone-0088473-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a> are controlled for (not shown for clarity). The interactions testing education and partisanship and the interactions testing education and schema were tested independently of each other by entering them as the final variables in separate regressions. Model improvement statistics are calculated relative to the final model shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473#pone-0088473-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Molecular cell biology", "Cellular types", "stem cells", "Embryonic stem cells", "bioethics", "Research assessment", "Science policy and economics", "communications", "Media studies", "Political science", "Public opinion", "public policy", "ordered", "probit", "regression", "interactions", "partisanship"], "article_id"=>937156, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Matthew Nisbet", "Ezra M. Markowitz"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088473.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_ordered_probit_regression_models_testing_interactions_between_education_and_partisanship_and_education_and_science_schema_/937156", "title"=>"Results of ordered probit regression models testing interactions between education and partisanship and education and science schema.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-18 02:51:26"}

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